Ingredient Glossary

You can choose a letter from the list below to jump straight to that section, or you can browse through all ingredients commonly used in personal care items today.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
Abietic Acid
Plant derived
Obtained from pine rosin. Used as a texturizer in soaps.

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Abrasives
The most frequently used are calcium carbonate (chalk) and, in toothpaste, di-calcium phosphate dihydrate.

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Absolutes
Plant derived
Pure essential oils acquired from plants (mostly flowers) and used in products as natural fragrance additives.

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Acacia Gum
Acacia Gum
Plant derived
A soothing mucilage, thickener, formula stabilizer and film-forming agent harvested from the stem, or trunk, of the acacia tree. It?s also known as gum arabic and catechu.

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Acerola Berry
Acerola Berry
Plant derived
Rich in sugars, minerals & flavonoids. A powerful source of natural vitamin C that helps stimulate connective tissue formation and the collagen-elastin network. Greatly improves skin?s strength, flexibility and firmness.

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Acid Rinse
Extremely useful for eliminating soap films from the hair after shampooing. A mixture of vinegar or lemon juice and water is a common one.

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After Shave
A perfumed liquid usually containing alcohol used to soothe the skin after shaving. May contain menthol to cool irritated skin.

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Agar-Agar Gum
Plant derived
Extracted from red seaweed. It is primarily used as a gelling agent, but is also utilized for its emulsifying and stabilizing properties.

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Ahas
(Alphahydroxy Acids) AHAs help loosen the glue-like lipids in the skin. When used in combination with BHAs, their effects are compounded. There are many varieties of alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) found in plants, vegetables and fruits, but five in particular have been scientifically proven to be the most beneficial. These five include glycolic, lactic, citric, malic and tartaric acids. Glycolic acid, from the heart of the raw cane sugar plant, has the smallest molecular structure, allowing for the deepest penetration. Next comes lactic from milk, followed by citric from citrus fruit, malic, found abundantly in apples, and tartaric from fruit fermentation, similar to that found in wine sediment. AHAs help speed exfoliation and stimulate cellular renewal, increase skin?s thickness, reduce the number of abnormal cells while softening, moisturizing and hydrating. By speeding up the skin?s natural exfoliation process, tone and texture is improved, while pores remain clear. AHAs also help boost the production of new collagen in the skin where the dermis and epidermis meet, which improves skin firmness and elasticity.

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Alcohol
A group of compounds that includes ethanol, methanol, and others.

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Algae
Algae
Plant
Used as thickening agents, water-binding agents, and anti-oxidants, algae contains the same vital nutrients, trace elements, and amino acids present in human blood plasma. Because of this, they can penetrate the skin more readily than most other ingredients. Minerals from algae are rich in anti-oxidants, vitamins, and mucilage that can protect, hydrate and soften the skin. There are more than 20,000 different known species of algae.

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Alkanet Root
Alkanet Root
Plant
Alkanna tinctoria is also known as dyer's bugloss, Spanish bugloss or bugloss of Languedoc. Its name comes from the Spanish word alcana, from Arabic al-hena. Alkanet is grown in the south of France and on the shores of the Levant. It has a dark red root of blackish appearance externally but inside showing a blue-red meat, surrounding a whitish core. Its root yields a fine red coloring matter which has been used as a natural colorant.

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Alkyloamides
Synthetic
Groups of synthetic fatty acids designated as DEA, MEA, MIPA, and PEG. Used for thickening, gelling, emulsifying, emolliency, skin and hair conditioning, foam boosting, foam stabilizing, wetting, opacifying, lubricating, powder binding, skin protecting, fungicidal properties, and superfatting. Found in shampoos, bubble baths, and liquid hand and body cleansers. Harmful when contaminated by nitrosamines and harmful to the environment.

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Allantoin
Plant derived
A natural compound occurring in herbs such as comfrey, wheat and sugar beets. It can also be extracted from the urine of most animals, including humans (urea). It is an effective healing agent that is easily absorbed through the skin helping to promote cellular renewal. It has a soothing and softening effect on the skin.

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Almond Glycerides
Plant derived
An emollient compound of fatty acids derived from almond, combined with glycerin that softens, smoothes, and soothes rough irregular skin. Helps strengthen the skin's moisture barrier.

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Almond Meal
Plant derived
The residue that remains after almond oil has been expressed; it is an excellent meal to use for exfoliation, because it is gentle and non-irritating.

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Almond Oil
Almond
Plant derived
Oil obtained from pressing almonds that is high in moisturizing fatty acids. Excellent emollient high in oleic, linoleic and other fatty acids, ideal in the treatment of dry skin. Soothes and moisturizes while easily penetrating the skin.

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Aloe Barbadenis Leaf Extract
Plant
Moisturizer, emollient, wound healer, pain reliever. Stimulates local circulation.

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Aloe Vera Gel
Aloe Vera
Plant derived
A manno-protein containing 18 amino acids, called "wound healng hormones". Clinically tested to stimulate cell-growth in damaged skin, together with its aspirin-like effect in wounds and burnt tissues, aloe vera is a natural ingredient of choice in many formulas .It has remarkable healing properties that can draw and hold oxygen to the skin. B- It is one of the most effective cellular renewal ingredients available. C- The plants composition is similar to that of human blood plasma and seawater and, because its pH is the same as the human skin, it is extremely soothing and protective. It is a natural astringent! ??

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Alpha Hydroxy Acids
Plant derived
Group of acids that appear naturally in fruit. Used in toners, creams, and masks to exfoliate and moisturize the skin. Can be a skin irritant causing redness and rashes.

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Alpha Tocopherol (Vitamin E)
In terms of skin health and skin care, Vitamin E benefits are numerous. In fact, skin care products that contain vitamin e have become an essential part of healthy skin care. Vitamin e is vital in protecting skin cells from ultra violet light, pollution, drugs, and other elements that produce cell damaging free radicals. It is believed that vitamin e is most effective in its natural alcohol form rather than its acetate form where it is a less effective antioxidant.

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Amigel
A polysaccharide containing glucose as the sole monomer. Used as a gelling and thickening agent., thoroughly bio-degradable.

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Amino Acids
The building blocks of protein. Some amino acids (essential amino acids) are not produced in the body and must be supplied externally. Amino acids are necessary for the hair, skin, nail and connective tissue growth. They are also very hydrating and moisturizing, and because of there small molecular size, can penetrate deep into the skin?s tissues.Every living cell in the body contains protein and cannot function properly without it. Approximately 80 amino acids are found in nature; only 20 are necessary for human metabolism. Some must be supplied by food and are called "essential". Amino acids are rapidly absorbed in the blood stream, and in combination with vitamins, provide essential nutrients to a wound area to promote healing.

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Aminomethyl Propanol
Synthetic
pH adjuster - alkaline.

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Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate
Derived from natural coconut alcohols. Acts as a mild cleanser.

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Angelica
Plant
(Angelica archangelica). A revitalizing herb derived from the roots, leaves and seeds of the plant that has bactericidal and fungicidal properties. It helps reduce the accumulation of toxins and excess water retention, and is extremely calming to the skin.

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Anise
Anise
Plant
An annual herb is related to the carrot and found in the parsley family. It imparts a warm, licorice-like scent, though is not related to the European plant whose roots are the source of true licorice. It is antiseptic and stimulating.

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Annatto Seed
Annatto Seed
Plant Derived
Annatto is a derived from the achiote trees of tropical regions of the Americas, and is used to produce a red food coloring and also as a flavoring. It scent is described as "slightly peppery with a hint of nutmeg" and flavor as "slightly sweet and peppery" Annatto is produced from the reddish pulp which surrounds the seed of the achiote (Bixa orellana L.).

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Antioxidants
Substances that slow the breakdown of nutrients and counteract the destructive effect of free radicals (chemically reactive compounds) in the body. There are several types which include vitamins A, E, C complex, and B complex, the minerals selenium and zinc, and the synthetic compounds BHT and BHA. Vitamins A, C, and E as well as BHA and BHT are used as preserving agents in cosmetics.

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Aonori
Plant
A green algae containing large amounts of sulfated polysaccharides providing water-retaining properties for deep tissue moisture.

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Apple Cider
Plant derived
Detoxifying, balancing and invigorating. When added to a toner?s formulation it acts as an ?acid rinse? to adjust the skin?s own pH.

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Apple Juice
Plant derived
Rich in natural pectin, containing polysaccharides, vitamin B, flavonoids and a high level of ? malic? acid. This acid has been scientifically proven to be one of the 5 most beneficial AHAs that help stimulate and speed skin cell renewal. The other acids are ?glycolic?, from the heart of the raw cane sugar plant, ?citric?, from citrus fruit, ?lactic? from milk, and ?tartaric? from fruit fermentation, similar to that found in wine sediment. Astringent, cleansing, smoothing and tightening. Contains zinc.

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Apples
Apples
Plant
Rich in natural pectin, containing polysaccharides, vitamin B, flavonoids and a high level of ? malic? acid. This acid has been scientifically proven to be one of the 5 most beneficial AHAs that help stimulate and speed skin cell renewal. The other acids are ?glycolic?, from the heart of the raw cane sugar plant, ?citric?, from citrus fruit, ?lactic? from milk, and ?tartaric? from fruit fermentation, similar to that found in wine sediment. Astringent, cleansing, smoothing and tightening. Contains zinc.

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Apricot
Apricots
Plant
Derived from the fruit, apricot is rich in vitamin A, beta-carotene and zinc, it has softening, cleansing, and soothing properties.

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Apricot Kernel Oil
Plant derived
Oil expressed from the apricot seed. High in vitamin A, it softens, has anti-aging properties, and helps prevent moisture loss. It also lubricates without leaving a greasy feeling on the skin. It closely resembles almond oil, so makes an excellent alternative.

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Arnica Extract
Arnica Extract
Plant derived
Herbal extract made from the dried flowers of a mountain-loving plant. Has reviving and firming qualities.

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Aromatherapy
The use of essences that are extracted from different parts of a plant - Root, Seed, Flower, Leaf, Bark, Fruit. These essences are called essential oils. Essential oils have numerous properties and various scents that affect us on a mental, emotional, spiritual and physical level. The art of using the essential (odor producing) oils from roots, barks, and herbs for treating the skin and body.

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Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
Vitamin
A potent anti-oxidant that plays an essential role in building collagen, the connective tissue that holds us together. An essential anti-aging ingredient that helps reverse and help prevent photo-damage while improving and preventing pigmentation problems. Ascorbic acid contains bioflavonoids (like rutin/ hesperidin etc.) which are found in fresh food, especially citrus fruits, that help promote the effectiveness of vitamin C and build capillary strength. Because of its acidic nature, it also helps improve tone and texture by removing dead skin cells and diminish the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

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Ascorbic Acid Polypeptides
Vitamin
Vitamin C in nature is always conjugated with water-soluble protein or polypeptides. Elixic C formula incorporates a vitamin C complex similar to that in its natural form. Therefore, it's extremely stable and readily available to convert to vitamin C, when applied to the skin.

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Ascorbyl Palmitate
Synthetic
Stabilized form of vitamin C. Antioxidant. Stimulates collagen synthesis.An ester of ascorbic acid, an anti-oxidant & preservative. The oil soluble salt of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Used as a preservative and anti-oxidant, it interacts synergistically with vitamin E. Because of its solubility in fats, it is very effective in preventing lipid peroxidation. Has many of the same anti-aging benefits of ascorbic acid

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Astringent
A clear liquid containing alcohol used mostly to cleanse oily skin, closes pores with its property of contracting the skin.

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Avocado Oil
Avocado
Plant derived
Natural oil cold-pressed from the avocado fruit that is rich in vitamins A, D & E, amino acids, and minerals. An excellent skin conditioner and moisturizer, this emollient oil is high in essential fatty acids to soothe and heal dry skin. A rapidly penetrating oil with anti-oxidant properties that help protect against free radical and photo damage.

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Azuki Beans
Azuki Beans
Plant derived
Traditional Japanese beans which, when ground, are excellent natural exfoliants. Protein and mineral rich.

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Azulene
Plant derived
An essential oil derived from the German camomile flower (matricaria chamomilla). It is an excellent analgesic, detoxifier, and anti-inflammatory, and extremely soothing and calming to the skin. Used to treat skin irritation and redness.

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Baking Soda
Mineral
Sodium bicarbonate. A mineral derived pH adjuster, and viscosity stabilizer. An aid in cleansing oily skin. It also relieves burns, itching, skin lesions and insect bites.

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Balm Mint Extract
Plant derived
A fragrant herb with soothing properties

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Banana
Bananas
Plant
Derived from the banana fruit and juice, it softens, smoothes and moisturizes the skin. It also contains the anti-aging vitamins A, B, and F, making it an excellent ingredient for mature and sun damaged skin.

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Barley
Barley
Plant
A demulcent with soothing properties. Combined with tomato, it helps improve penetration, creating a delivery system to suspend critical components and facilitate delivery into the stratum corneum.

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Base Notes
The infusion of fragrance with your personal body chemistry.

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Bearberry
Plant
Uva Ursi (or manzanita). A natural source of hydroquinone (pigment lightener) due to the astringency of the tannin acid found in the berries and leaves of this plant. Also contains arbutin which can inhibit melanin production. Bearberry inhibits the production of tyrosinase and also naturally decreases existing pigment.

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Bee Propolis
Animal
The resinous substance collected from various plants by bees to line their hives; it is antiseptic and antibacterial, making it very beneficial for abrasions, bruises, and skin inflammation. It is high in anti-oxidants and possibly anti-biotic.

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Beeswax
Beeswax
Animal
Made from flowers by honeybees to create their honeycomb. Used as an emulsifier, thickener, and formula stabilizer that protects the skin and prevents moisture loss. It is all-natural, with a delicate honey-sweet aroma.

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Beet Root Juice
Beet Root
Plant derived
Helps heal inflammatory skin conditions. It contains vitamins A, B & C, and allantoin, a compound known for its healing and cell renewal properties. Beneficial in the treatment of acne and other skin lesions.

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Behenalkonium Chloride and Cetyl Alcohol
Plant derived
Mild but powerful and substantive conditioner. Improves body/manageability, rinses easily and leaves a smooth after feel.

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Behentrimonium Methosulfate and Cetearyl Alcohol
Plant derived
Primary conditioning agent. Reduces static and flyaway. Provides lubricity resulting in detangling

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Bentonite
Mineral
Natural mineral clay from volcanic ash. Used in facial masks for it?s drawing, detoxifying abilities. May also be used as a suspending agent, thickener and binder. It takes its name from Fort Benton where bentonite deposits are found.

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Benzethonium Chloride
Use therapeutically as a topical anti-infective, antiseptic and anti-acneic agent.

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Benzoin Essential Oil
Plant derived
A balsamic resin that secretes from the trunks of trees where an incision is made in the bark, resulting in the formation of oleoresin ducts. The resin then either accumulates beneath the bark or exudes from the incisions. Benzoin has a warm, vanilla-like fragrance, and has antiseptic and soothing properties for irritated skin.

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Benzyl Alcohol
Synthetic
Preservative. Protects product from microbial contamination.

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Bergamot
Bergamot
Plant derived
A small and roughly pear-shaped citrus fruit originating and grown mainly in Calabria, Italy. Bergamot grows on small evergreen trees known as bergamots, which are produced from a cross of the pear lemon and the Seville orange or grapefruit. Shoots of the bergamot tree can also be grafted into similar citrus trees to produce the bergamot fruit. The flowers of the bergamot tree blossom during the spring.

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Beta-Carotene
Plant derived
Precursor of Vitamin A occurring naturally in plants, especially abundant in carrots, papaya and algae. It possesses both healing and cellular renewal properties.

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Betaglucan
Plant
Film former, moisturizer, humectant, anti-inflammatory. Stimulates collagen production; protects cells against UV radiation.

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Bha (Butylated Hydroxyanisole) And Bht (Butylated Hydroxytoluene)
Synthetic
Synthetic antioxidants used as preservatives. (Beta Hydroxy Acid) BHAs, such as salicylic and citric acids, dissolve the oil portion of the glue-like lipids in the skin. They are widely used in acne treatments due to their ability to clear pores of oily, waxy debris and dead skin build up. BHAs may be less irritating than AHAs.

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Biotin
Vitamin
One of the B complex vitamins, also known as vitamin H. It is used to improve the texture of creams and add body and shine to hair products. It is essential for tissue growth, proper function of the sebaceous glands, and for the over-all health of the skin and scalp.

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Birch
Plant
An astringent and antiseptic herb containing salicylic acid derived from the leaves and bark of the birch tree. It is helpful in treating inflammatory skin conditions such as eczema, blemishes, and scalp disorders.

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Bisabalol
Plant
This naturally occurring ingredient is used to help accelerate the healing process of the skin, and is used confidently on sensitive skins. It has anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties and it also contains anti-bacterial as well as anti-mycotic properties.

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Bladderwrack
Plant derived
Seaweed derived from the dried Thallus (bulbous root) of fucus vesiculosus. Rich in the same trace minerals, amino acids and other vital nutrients present in human blood plasma, it helps balance and re-mineralize the skin.?Considered to have moisturizing & soothing properties, used in the external treatment of cellulitus, sprains & bruises.

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Blue Green Algae
Plant
The smallest and most primitive of plants that contain chlorophyll in their protoplasm. Their unicellular bodies contain all the biological constituents necessary for life functions. Hydrates and protects skin.

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Blue Mallow
Plant
Derived from the flowers and leaves of the common, or ?blue? mallow. It is cleansing, non-irritating, and softening. An excellent treatment for dry skin and inflammations.

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Borage Oil
Borage
Plant derived
A hardy annual plant with anti-inflammatory, rejuvenating, cleansing, lightening and pore clearing properties. Contains a rich source of essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals necessary healthy skin function. Excellent for aging and congested skin.

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Brewers Yeast
Bacterial Fermentation
Rich in vitamins and proteins, this proven moisturizer helps keep skin soft and supple.

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Bromelain
Plant derived
An enzyme derived from pineapple. Digests dead protein, as in surface skin cells (used in meat tenderizers). Can rid the skin of debris up to 1000 times their weight of irritants that clog and enlarge pores.

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Burdock
Plant
Derived from the roots of the plant. It restores smoothness to the skin and has a balancing effect on the sebaceous glands. Excellent in the treatment of eczema and other scaly skin conditions. Mildly antibiotic.

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Butyl Acetate
Synthetic
A toxic solvent used in nail polish and many other products.

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Butyl Paraben
Synthetic
A member of the paraben family of petrochemicals commonly used as a preservative to prevent mold, fungus, and bacteria. Non-sensitizing and non-irritating.

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Butyl Stearate
Synthetic
An artificial chemical found in face creams and other facial care products.

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Ca 24
Synthetic
Used as an antimicrobial in shampoos and bath lotions at concentrations of up to .3%. Humans have had allergic reactions to a .1% water solution of it within 24, 48, or 72 hours of use. CA 24 contains 70% chloroacetamide and 30% sodium benzoate.

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Calamine
Mineral
A pink powder that is made of zinc oxide with a small amount of ferric oxide. It is used in lotions, ointments, and liniments. It is a customary mixture that is soothing and healing to the skin. It is great for itchy rashes such as poison ivy. It is natural but some formulas contain phenol which can cause poisoning when applied to the skin. A blend of natural calamine and aloe vera is a good, pure skin treatment for burns, rashes, and insect bites.

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Calcium Alginate
Nontoxic. It is used in many foods for binding. Also used as a film-former in peel-off masks. It is a stabilizer for oil-in-water emulsions.

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Calcium Carbonate
Natural occurring salt that is found in limestone, chalk, and marble. It is used as a pigment and for pigment prolonging. It has no known toxicity.

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Calendula (Calendula Officinalis) Flowers
Plant
Anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, wound healer. (Marigold) Astringent, cleansing, anti-inflammatory, moisturizing, soothing, softening and an anti-oxidant.

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Calendula Extract
Calendula
Plant derived
Marigolds are the source for this wonderful emollient oil which has a soothing effect on skin.

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Camellia Leaf
Plant
(Green Tea Leaf) Potent anti-oxidant that offers 20 times the free radical scavenging effects of vitamin E. It increases the effect of sunscreens, and studies have found that it may help prevent skin cancer from UV rays as well. Green tea also helps reduce irritation caused by glycolic acid, and also has anti-cellulite properties.

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Camomile
Plant
Healing, extremely soothing, moisturizing and toning to the skin, especially dry skin conditions. Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiseptic, it has the ability to neutralize skin irritants. Excellent for soothing red, irritated skin.

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Camphor Oil
Plant derived
Distilled from the wood, roots and branches of an evergreen tree native to China and Japan. Used to treat acne, inflammation, oily conditions, spots.

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Candelilla Wax
Plant derived
A herbal wax. It is used in lipsticks, in creams, and as a replacement for rubber.

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Caprylic Acid
An oil liquid made by the oxidation of octanol for use in perfumery. Occurs naturally in palm and coconut oil.

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Caprylic/ Capric Triglyceride
A mixture of glycerin, caprylic acid and capric acid. An emollient ester derived from coconut oil with good lubricating and spreading properties. Helps products to glide on the skin.

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Capryloyl Glycine
Plant derived
Antimicrobial, skin conditioning and moisturizing properties. A lipo-aminoacid with antiseptic & anti-microbial properties, equally effective in combating bacteria found in acne lesions as benzoyl peroxide, commonly used in acne medications, without its characteristic dryness & irritancy.

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Capsicum Oleoresin
An oil from the pepper family that is used in hair tonics to arouse the scalp. It is said to upgrade hair growth. It may however cause allergic reactions in some people.

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Caramel
A concentrated solution of heated sugar or glucose. It is used in cosmetics as a color and in skin lotions as a soothing agent. In 198,1 the FDA ruled caramel generally recognized as safe.

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Carbomer 934,940,941,960,961
Synthetic
Used in many cosmetics and toothpastes as a thickener. It can cause eye irritation.

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Carmine
Animal
Natural red color comes from the dried female cochineal beetle. It is sometimes used to color lip gloss, lipsticks, and other cosmetics.

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Carotenoids
Plant derived
Develops in plants and in the bodies of plant-eating animals. They are precursors to vitamin A.

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Carrageenan
Plant derived
A gel-forming polysaccharide found in the ?red algae? seaweed known as ?Irish moss?. It is a very soothing natural emulsifier, high in sulfur and extremely nourishing to the skin.

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Carrot (Daucus Carota Sativa) Oil
Carrots
Plant
Antioxidant. Source of Beta-Carotene and Vitamin A. Rich in vitamins and minerals, this oil has many antiseptic properties. Smoothes and tones skin. Used for skin conditions such as dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis and rashes.

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Carrot Juice
Plant derived
High in both alpha & beta-carotenoids (possibly more powerful than beta carotene alone) which are responsible for Pro-vitamin A activity in formulations. Soothing and healing, it restores elasticity of the skin.

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Castor Oil
Plant derived
??? Extract from castor bean, a great carrier oil soothing to the skin.

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Cedar
Cedar
Plant derived
Cedar (Cedrus) is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae. They are most closely related to the Firs (Abies), sharing a very similar cone structure. They are native to the mountains of the western Himalaya and the Mediterranean region, occurring at altitudes of 1,500?3200?m in the Himalaya and 1,000?2,200?m in the Mediterranean.

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Cellulose
Plant derived
The fiber in the cell walls of all plants. Gum that is made from it is used as an emulsifier, stabilizer, and binder in cosmetics. There is no known toxicity. Inhaling the powder during manufacturing or processing can be harmful to the lungs.

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Centella
Plant
(Centella Asiatica) Also known as Gotu Kola, it is a very soothing and healing herb that reduces inflammation and redness of skin irritations, blemishes and burns. Contains triterpenoids, compounds that aid in wound healing and strengthen the skin. Also very toning and firming.

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Ceramide
??? A main component of the intercellular lipids that is responsible for cell cohesion at the top layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum. A healthy stratum corneum maintains the balance of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) at the skin barrier to provide effective hydration.

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Certified Colors
Synthetic
A color "certified" by the FDA as safe. However, various colors (coal tar dyes) have been found to cause cancer. But, hair dyes are exempt from even this regulation.

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Ceteareth-3
Synthetic
Used in cosmetics as an emulsifier and lotion. Dries out the skin and can cause numerous allergic reactions.

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Cetearyl Alcohol
May be natural or artificial. It's used in most lotions. A thickener and carrying agent for other ingredients.

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Cetearyl Glucoside
Plant derived
An all natural emulsifier, derived from corn and coconut oil, without the use of a chemical reagent or even an organic solvent.

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Cetearyl Olivate and Sorbitan Olivate
Plant derived
Emulsifier. Thickener. Light feeling and moisturizing. Increases skin elasticity.

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Cetyl Alcohol
Plant derived
Thickener. Emulsion stabilizer. Helps reduce oily feel and drying effects of other ingredients.

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Cetyl Esters
Plant derived
Exceptionally emollient wax derived from vegetable sources.

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Cetyl Lactate, Myristate, Palmitate, And Stearate
Natural or synthetic compounds used as emollients and texturizers in cosmetics.

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Cetyl Ricinoleate
Fatty alcohol of cetyl alcohol and ricinic acid (fatty acid of castor oil) that moisturizes skin and regulates product consistency.

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Chamomile
??? A daisy-like white & yellow flower head, known to reduce inflammation, external swelling, soothe skin irritation.

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Chamomile (Anthemis Nobilis) Extract
Plant
Soothing, calming, anti-inflammatory. Antiseptic. Stimulative to skin metabolism.

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Chamomile Oil
Known for its calming effect. Soothing and anti-inflammatory for the skin and the spirit.

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Chlorophyll
Plant derived
The green component of plants that has antiseptic and anti-fungal properties. Known for its natural cleansing and moisturizing properties. Also a natural deodorizer.

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Cinnamon Leaf Essential Oil
Cinnamon
Plant derived
A warming, stimulating and invigorating essential oil with antiseptic properties. Has a pleasant, spicy scent.

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Citric Acid
Plant derived
Found in plants and citrus fruits. This organic acid is a pH adjuster and acts as a natural preservative and anti-oxidant.Used as a flavoring agent in foods and pharmaceuticals, and as a preservative sequestering agent. Foam-stabilizer and pH-adjuster in cosmetics. It is nontoxic.

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Citrus Bioflavonoids
Plant derived
Essential support molecules for vitamin C to have the greatest benefits. Act as free radical scavengers and neutralizes singlet oxygen oxidizers. From various citrus fruits.

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Citrus Extract
Citrus
Plant derived
??? Extraction from citrus fruit. A natural ingredient in the Mix Fruit Acids.

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Clary Sage
Plant
Antiseptic, astringent, clarifying, softening, and cell regenerating. Good for oily, congested complexions. It also helps preserve moisture and is slightly astringent. It is used to control greasy hair and dandruff, and is also stimulating the scalp, which encourages healthy hair growth.

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Clover Blossom Extract
Plant derived
Soothes and conditions the skin.

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Coal Tar
Plant derived
A topical anti-eczematic. Coal is a mineral of organic origin, formed from the remains of vegetation which over millions of years has changed to coal. From early times, people relied on the strength of the sun and the use of coal tar as their only form of treatment for psoriasis.

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Cocamidopropyl Betaine
Synthetic
Artificial substance frequently referred to as a natural substance made "from coconuts" on the labels of shampoos. It's a secondary surfactant, used in combination with other, stronger surfactants. Surfactant derived from coconut oil. Does not irritate the skin or mucous membranes. Effective in foaming cleansers, shampoos and body washes where high, creamy foam is desired.

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Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaine
Plant derived
Mild surfactant. Excellent foaming properties that improves lubricity of lather and facilitates delivery of conditioning agents from shampoo to the hair.

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Cocoa Butter
Cocoa Butter
Plant derived
Derived from the nut seeds of the cocoa plant, cocoa butter is used as an emollient, and to soften and lubricate the skin. Has a ?chocolatey? fragrance.

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Cocoa Pod and Beans
Cocoa Pod and Beans
Plant derived
Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. "Cocoa" can often also refer to the drink commonly known as hot chocolate[1]; cocoa powder, the dry powder made by grinding cocoa seeds and removing the cocoa butter from the dark, bitter cocoa solids; or it may refer to the combination of both cocoa powder and cocoa butter together.

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Coconut (Coccus Nucifera) Oil
Coconut
Plant
Emollient. Lubricant. Source of Vitamin E. Derived from the coconut fruit, it is used as an emollient to smooth and lubricate the skin. Rich in saponins, it is excellent for soap making because it produces a rich, creamy lather.

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Coconut Milk
Coconut Milk
Plant derived
From the drupaceous fruit of the coconut palm. It is abundant with natural antiseptic fatty acids that helps promote a softer more lubricated complexion. This rich, creamy milk is pressed from the thick white flesh of a well-matured coconut. It has important anti-carcinogenic properties.

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Cod Liver Oil
Animal
A rich source of vitamins A and D. When vitamin A deficiency occurs the most outstanding symptom is dry, scaly skin, particularly on the hands and soles of the feet.

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Co-Enzyme Q10
A natural substance found in every cell of the human body. In our mid twenties its activity decreases. Naturally occurring in the tissue of plants, Co-Enzyme Q10 (also known as ?ubiquinone?) is a vitamin-like anti-oxidant that boosts cellular activity. It helps to fortify the skin?s defenses against UV damage, while reducing the appearance of wrinkles, strengthening cell membranes, and providing the skin with new energy.

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Collagen
70% of the body's connective tissue in the dermis is made of collagen. Gerontologists have discovered that is where the aging process of the skin takes place. Young connective tissue is made up of soluble collagen whose molecules are disordered in relation to each other. As the skin ages, and is exposed to sunlight, chemicals (like makeup, coal tar dyes, etc., and various foods), the soluble collagen becomes "cross-linked," so the molecules are no longer displaced in relation to each other. Cross-linking makes the collagen insoluble and inflexible. As this happens, the connective tissues becomes strained, dry, wrinkled, and worn.

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Coltsfoot
A soothing, healing, conditioning and moisturizing herb. It contains silica and cystine, important amino acids to maintain healthy skin and hair.

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Comfrey
Comfrey
Plant
A plant that produces Allentoin, an ingredient that promotes skin healing. This extract is anti-inflammatory, astringent and emollient. One of the most famed healing plants; it contains allantoin, a substance that promotes the growth of connective tissue and is easily absorbed through the skin. Moisturizing, rejuvenating!

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Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) Leaf
Plant
Anti-inflammatory. Soothes skin irritation.

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Coneflower
Coneflower
Plant
(Echinacea) An anti-inflammatory and antibacterial herb that is very soothing and healing. Nourishes, moisturizes, smoothes and firms the skin.

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Corn (Zea Mays) Oil
Plant
Emollient.

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Corn (Zea Mays) Starch
Plant derived
Moisture absorbent.

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Corn Cob Meal
Corn
Plant derived
From milled corn cob. Exfoliates dead cells by gently polishing the surface of the skin. Because the meal is so finely ground, it will not over-stimulate, or irritate the skin.

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Cornflower
Cornflower
Plant
Known for its ability to soften skin, leaving it more supple. Obtained from the flowers of the plant. Very soothing, softening and sedating to the skin. Also has natural antiseptic properties.

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Corriander Seed
Corriander Seed
Plant derived
Coriandrum sativum is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. The name 'coriander' in a culinary context may refer to either the seeds of the plant (used as a spice), or to its leaves (used as a herb), however in North American countries, for example, the name Cilantro is given to the leaves. Coriander is native to southwestern Asia and west to north Africa. It is a soft, hairless plant growing to 50 cm [20 in.] tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. The flowers are borne in small umbels, white or very pale pink, asymmetrical, and with the petals that point away from the centre of the umbel being longer (5-6 mm) than those pointing to the middle of the umbel (only 1-3 mm long). The fruit is a globular dry schizocarp 3-5 mm diameter.

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Cranberry Juice
Cranberry
Plant derived
Very high in natural vitamin C. Helps stimulate the production of collagen and elastin. Also offers bactericidal action.

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Cucumber
Cucumber
Plant
An anti-inflammatory?reduces heat and inflammation. It is cooling, and cleansing, and has an extremely soothing effect on the skin. Also contains amino acids and minerals that help firm and regenerate.Has soothing effects on the skin and improves moisture retention.

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Cyclomethicone
Derived from silicone (which is derived from silica, a substance that ocEmollient skin conditioning agent derived from silica. Water repellent, skin-adherent and stable over a wide range of temperatures.curs naturally in rocks and sand), it provides a silky, smooth feel to the skin. This form of silicone also aids the delivery of active ingredients into the skin.

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D&C
This abbreviation preceding the name of a color means that the FDA has certified it as safe for use in drugs and cosmetics, but not in food. D&C means that the color can only be used externally and not around the eyes or inside the mouth. D&C colors are usually man-made.

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Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) Root
Plant
Anti-inflammatory. Astringent. Source of Vitamins A, B, C and D

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Dantoin 685
Synthetic
A preservative used in shampoos and deodorants. Contains formaldehyde and N-acetal. Highly toxic. Also listed as DMDM hydantoin.

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Decyl -Polyglucose
Plant derived
Vegetable based mild surfactant that gently but thoroughly cleans hair and scalp.

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Deionized Water
A water purifying and stabilizing process by which minerals and heavy metals are removed. Minerals and heavy metals can interfere with product?s performance and stability.

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Deodorant
A product that reduces perspiration odor. There are natural deodorants containing herbs like marigold and vitamin E. Deodorants do not stop perspiration.

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Depilatories
Destroy hair by breaking the chemical bonds that hold it together. After using any hair removal method, a moisturizer should be applied to soothe the skin.

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Dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin covering a wide variety of skin disorders and evidenced by itching, redness and various skin lesions. Can be due to one of several causes - systemic disease, skin irritants such as poison ivy, corrosives, acids and alkalies or hypersensitivity.

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Dermis
The second or middle layer of skin. contains the blood vessels, elastin and collagen, etc.

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Detergent
Synthetic
These artificial soaps may be made with a variety of chemicals and are frequently not biodegradable.

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Di/Cyclomethicone
Synthetic
An inert fluid of dense viscosity, promotes easy spread, leaves soft, smooth feel to the skin.

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Diethanolamine
Synthetic
More commonly known by its abbreviation, DEA. One of many artificial detergents. It may be contaminated with nitrosamines and should be avoided.

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Dimethicone
Silica
Oil derived from silicon (which originates from silica, a naturally occurring substance found in rocks and sand). It is used to facilitate smooth application of a product while softening the skin. Gives a smooth feel to a cosmetic cream or lotion. Adds lubricity to products. Shown to help repair damaged skin.

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Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate
Plant
An extract From Licorice. Shown to reduce irritation and inflammation.

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Disodium EDTA
Synthetic
Chelating agent. Complexes metal ions to help preclude oxidation and enhance the activity of preservatives.

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Dog Rose (Rosa Canina) Hip CO2 Extract
Dog Rose
Plant
skin regeneration, healing

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Drug
According to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (as amended), a drug is:Articles recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia, the official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them. Articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease in human beings or other animals. Articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of human beings or other animals.

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Dry Milk
Animal
Like liquid milk it contains ?natural? lactic acid. Lactic acid is one of the five most beneficial AHAs. A mild exfoliant that helps reduce wrinkles and improve the skin?s texture. Very softening and moisturizing.

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Dulse
Plant
A flat leaved red sea weed (?Fucus?). It is high in bio-nutritional vitamins including B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9 and Beta-carotene. It stimulates connective tissue repair and is cell energizing.

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Eau De Parfum
Women?s fragrance with a lighter scent concentration than perfume (8 to 15%). Can be used in a spray application.

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Echinacea (Echinacea Angustifolia) Root
Echinacea
Plant
Anti inflammatory, immunostimulant. Heals wounds and inflammations. (Coneflower) An anti-inflammatory and antibacterial herb that is very soothing and healing. Nourishes, moisturizes, smoothes and firms the skin.

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Eczema
Acute or chronic weeping, crusting and inflammatory skin conditions. Eczema is more the description of a symptom than of a disease. The word has become synonymous with dermatitis.

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EDTA
An artificial chemical that is used as an antioxidant and as a "complexing" agent in shampoos, which means that it binds metallic irons so that the surfactants can work more effectively.

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EDTA-4Na
??? A synthetic chemical that removes metals or mineral ions from solution. Used as a preservative & anti-oxidant. Irritating to the skin if more than 5% (less than 0.1% used).

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Elder (Sambucus Nigra) Flower
Plant
Cleansing, calming and anti-inflammatory. Elder flower has been used for generations to keep complexion soft. It both tones and protects the skin. An astringent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory herb with emollient properties. It is an excellent ingredient for eye and facial lotions, and is particularly beneficial for dry skin. Also provides lightening and firming action.

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Emollients
Prevent water loss and have a softening and soothing effect on the skin. They can be natural, like almond oil, or manufactured, like mineral oil.

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Emulsifying Wax
Vegetable waxes created from a combination of emulsifiers and fatty alcohols. They are treated to mix more easily with other ingredients, providing a very stable formula.

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Emulsion
A stable combination of oil and water phases accomplished with the use of surfactants.

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Enzymes
A complex, organic, and predominately protein substance produced by living cells. Enzymes bring about or accelerate reaction (as in the digestion of food) at body temperature, without itself being permanently altered. ?Enzymes? such as papain and bromelin are commonly used in skin care due to their exfoliating action. Another enzyme, super oxide dismutase (SOD) is used for its free radical scavenging properties.

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Epidermis
The outer layer of skin.

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Epsom Salt
Epsom Salt
Plant derived
Magnesium sulfate is a chemical compound containing magnesium and sulfate, with the formula MgSO4. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate, MgSO4?7H2O, commonly called Epsom salts. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is used as a drying agent. Since the anhydrous form is hygroscopic (readily absorbs water from the air) and therefore harder to weigh accurately, the hydrate is often preferred when preparing solutions, for example in medical preparations. Epsom salts have traditionally been used as a component of bath salts.

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Essential Fatty Acids
Sometimes known as vitamin F, these substances can't be manufactured by the body and must be consumed in the diet. There are three types: linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic. The primary fatty acids fulfill many functions in our bodies. They lubricate, aid in the transportation of oxygen to the cells, and help thicken the blood.

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Essential Oils
Plant derived
Oily liquids obtained from plants. Complex mixtures of alcohols, ketones, phenols, acids, ethers, aldehydes, esters, oxides, and sulfur compounds (among others). They're also called volatile oils, ethereal oils, essences, or absolutes. The oily liquid obtained from plants through a variety of processes. It usually has the taste and smell of the original plant. Called essential oils, because down through history, the theory is they were essential to life and they were the ?essence? of the plant. The use of essential oils as preservatives is ancient.

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Ethanol (Or Ethyl Alcohol)
Colorless, vaporizable liquid. Has a burning taste. Well-known to most of us as the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Commonly called simply "alcohol," although there are many other kinds of alcohols. Ethanol is widely used in cosmetics as a solvent and as an antibacterial agent. As a preservative, it's effective at concentrations of 15% to 20%. It's an antitoxin in concentrations of 60% to 70%, with a bactericidal effect within 45 seconds. It's also used in acne treatments and in rinses for oily hair. Ethanol absorbs water and thus can be very drying in fast-drying skin lotions (at concentrations of 15%); the lotions need to include glycerols and vegetable oils to minimize the drying effect. Provokes a late allergic reaction in some people when used topically. Taken orally, ethanol is toxic in doses above 80g. Ethanol is often purposely made poisonous by the addition of methanol and it is then known as SDA (specially denatured alcohol).

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Ethyl Acetate
Synthetic
Compound made from acetic acid and ethyl alcohol used as a solvent and in nail polish and nail polish removers. May irritate skin.

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Eucalyptus Extract
Eucalyptus
Plant derived
Stimulating and antiseptic oil. Aids in the formation of healthy skin tissue. Very healing.

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Evening Primrose (Oenothera Biennis) Seed Oil
Evening Primrose
Plant
Emollient. Source of gamma linolenic acid, an essential fatty acid important to skin barrier function. Calming, cleansing, and moisturizing herb. A superb emollient and skin nutrient, high in essential fatty acids, especially gamma-linolenic acid. Extremely beneficial for dry skin and scalp.

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Exfoliate/Exfoliant
A product used to shed the superficial cells of the outer layer of skin. To remove the outermost layer of dead skin cells with a scrub or cleanser.

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Eyebright
Plant
An herb with astringent, cleansing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Herbal folklore states that eyebright has the ability to ?cure all ailments and complaints of the eyes?.

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Fats
Acquired from animal fat, oil seeds, or fruit pulp. They are used as lotion or salve in cosmetics. They can be solid, semisolid, or liquid.

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Fatty Acids
Organic oils found in vegetable and animal fats. Excellent skin emollients and an important part of the diet. (Essential Fatty acids, EFA?s or Vitamin F) Organic oils found vegetable and animal fats. Saturated fatty acids are palmitic and stearic. Some unsaturated fatty acids are oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids (excellent emollients for the skin). Fatty acids are necessary for regulating healthy skin and pre-mature aging.

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Fatty Alcohols
Thick to semi-thick syrup-like liquids. Give high emolliency. Can be natural or man-made. Sometimes used in hair and skin-conditioners, creams, lotions, and conditioning shampoos.

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Fda
The Food and Drug Administration. The federal agency responsible for managing the safety and strength of all foods and drugs, and cosmetics sold in the US.

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Fennel
Fennel
Plant
Derived from the seeds, it is cleansing, anti-bacterial, and rejuvenating with anti-oxidant properties. Offers a slight tightening action to the skin. Rich in the essential fatty acids oleic and linoleic acid which are highly beneficial to the skin.

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Fenugreek
Fenugreek
Plant
An annual herb that is emollient, anti-inflammatory and healing. Particularly useful in the treatment of skin irritation.

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Flavonoid
Plant derived
Any class of active compounds found in plants. Some flavonoids are the elements that give color to flowers and fruits. All have anti-oxidant properties.

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Formaldehyde
Synthetic
Colorless, harsh, irritating substance that is found in many preservatives. It is severely toxic when inhaled or swallowed. 44% of all people whose skin is exposed to it get an irritating reaction. It is used in shampoos at concentrations of .1% to .2%. Methanol is sometimes added to formaldehyde at a 15% concentration to prevent polymerization.

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Fragrance Oil
Synthetic
A concentrated product used in the creation of perfume, cologne or toilet water.

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Fragrance-Free
No added fragrances; just the natural aroma of the ingredients.

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Frankincense Essential Oil
Plant derived
Actually a gum resin that is very beneficial for all skin types. Anti-inflammatory properties relieve dry and sensitive skin irritations, and astringent qualities help to balance oily or overactive skin. Also very revitalizing to mature skin, making it an excellent anti-wrinkle ingredient.

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Free Radicals
An atom or molecule that has an unpaired electron, making it highly unstable and likely to react with other substances. Because of this, free-radicals can damage the body at the cellular level.Unstable or chemically incomplete molecules which can be formed within skin as a result of sun, pollution and stress. These molecules may "steal" particles from other molecules thus creating more unstable compounds and setting off a chain reaction that can damage cells. Anti-oxidants such as Vitamins C and E fight free radical action that can weaken epidermal support, resulting in wrinkling of skin, dryness, loss of skin elasticity and premature aging.

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French Lavender
French Lavender
Plant derived
Lavender is a Mediterranean shrub which is cultivated for its aromatic flowers. French Lavender, "Lavandula Officinalis grows wild in the south of France, in Italy, Corsica and Yugoslavia. It is cultivated widely all over the world, including area in Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cyprus, England, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, U.S.S.R, Spain, Tanganyika, Tasmania, Turkey and Yugoslavia and Washington, USA.

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Fruit Acids
Plant derived
Found in various fruits and herbs. They are used in masks and moisturizers for their ability to moisturize and exfoliate the skin. Fruit acids are used in concentrations as low as .25% and as high as 8%. The higher concentrations increase the "heat" of the product and the peeling action. It can also cause skin irritation in some people.

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Gamma Linolenic Acid
Plant derived
A fatty acid. Found in evening primrose oil, black currant seeds, borage oil, and mother's milk.

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Gelatin
Refined protein from animal origin. Used as a thickener and film-forming agent.

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Geranium Essential Oil
Geranium
Plant derived
Distilled from the leaves of pelargonium graveolens, a natural antiseptic and astringent that also promotes healing. It has the unusual ability to balance sebum production making it valuable for those with combination, dry, dehydrated, or oily skin. Astringent, cleansing, moistening, softening, stimulating.

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Geranium Oil
Plant derived
An effective anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and astringent derived from the aromatic plant. For use on acne and oily skin.

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Germaben
An all-in-one preservative system, less than 1% used.

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German Blue Chamomile
German Blue Chamomile
Plant derived
German Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), is an annual plant of the sunflower family Asteraceae.German Chamomile essential oil is deep blue in colour and contains high levels of azulene. It usually grows near populated areas all over Europe and temperate Asia. It is widely introduced in temperate North America and Australia. As the seeds need open soil to survive, it often grows near roads, around landfills and in cultivated fields as a weed. The primary active ingredient of the essential oil from German Chamomile is bisabolol.

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Ginger
Ginger
Plant
Derived from the root, it helps the skin purge and stimulates circulation. Warming to the skin, it helps ease muscle tension.

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Ginger Oil
Plant derived
Revered in Asia since the earliest of times, ginger acts as an antiseptic and stimulant.

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Gingko Biloba Oil
Plant derived
Ginko, thought to be the oldest tree on the planet, has long been used in Chinese medicine. Used for its anti-inflammatory and antiallergenic properties.

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Ginkgo Biloba
Ginkgo
Plant
An herb that helps increase blood flow and oxygenation to energize the skin. Has anti-oxidant properties, making it an excellent anti-aging ingredient.

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Glucamate Sse20
Safe, mild & effective nonionic emulsifier, clarifies oils into water.

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Glucose
Derived from sugar, has soothing and moisture-binding properties. Also helps treat burned skin.

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Glycereth
A polyethylene glycol ether of glycerin. It is an artificial form of glycerin.

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Glycerides
Any class used as a texturizer and/ or emollient that compounds glycerin with any one of many fatty acids, especially those found naturally in oils and fats.

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Glycerin
Plant derived
Conditioning agent. Humectant. Absorbs and retains moisture. A humectant (water-attracting/binding ingredient), emulsifier, and emollient naturally produced from a combination of vegetable fat and water.

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Glyceryl Stearate
Plant derived
Emulsifier. Emollient. Skin conditioning agent. Excellent moisturizer & emollient, used to stabilize viscosity as well as opacify lotions and cremes. Self-emulsifying form of glyceryl stearate.

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Glycol Stearate
Emulsifying and spreading agent.

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Glycolic Acid
Alphahydroxy acid (AHA) with the smallest molecular structure, allowing for the deepest penetration. In 1987, after 20 years of research, Dr. Eugene Van Scott released his scientific findings on AHAs. These findings proved that it?s not necessarily age that determines a smooth, youthful-looking complexion, but how fast the skin rids itself of dying and dead cells. Dr. Van Scott discovered that when topically applied, AHAs could speed up this exfoliation process, thus improving skin tone and texture. The increase in cell turn-over also helps boost collagen production, which improves skin firmness.Used as a skin care treatment in exfoliation creams and masks. It may irritate mucous membranes and cause allergic reactions.

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Glycosaminoglycans
Found in all plants. Sodium hyaluronate and other glycosaminoglucans are vital moisturizers and lubricants present in the interstitial spaces between epidermal cells. The absence of these lubricating moisturizers can accelerate the deterioration of the skin?s collagen, resulting in the loss of elasticity, flexibility and tonicity. They are conditioning, moisturizing, and promote suppleness & firmness.

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Glycyrrhetinic Acid Phytosome
Plant derived
??? Licorice derivatives. Anti-inflammatory, anti-irritant, anti-puffiness, especially effective for eye area, soothing to irritated skin. Phytosome chemistry termed for complexing with purified soy phospholipids to facilitate a longer release of the active for better bioavailability, in the same manner as liposome, only more effective.

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Goldenseal
Goldenseal
Plant derived
A woodland plant (Hydrastis canadensis) of eastern North America, having small greenish-white flowers and a yellow root used in herbal medicine. Also called orangeroot.

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Goldenseal (Hydrastis Canadensis)
Plant
A useful antiseptic, natural antibiotic, and astringent with excellent wound healing properties.Anti-septic. Anti-inflammatory. Anti-dandruff.

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Gotu Kola
Plant
(Centella Asiatica) Very soothing and healing herb that reduces inflammation and redness of skin irritations, blemishes and burns. Contains triterpenoids, compounds that aid in wound healing and strengthen the skin. Also very toning and firming.

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Grape (Vitis Vinifera) Seed Oil
Plant
Emollient. Source of Vitamins E and D. Ultra fine oil pressed from grape seeds with especially non-allergenic properties. Moisturizing and nourishing due to its high linoleic acid content. Free-radical scavenger.

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Grape Seed
Plant
Contains the powerful anti-oxidant proanthocyanidin, which supports the actions of vitamin E and beta-carotene, and increases the action of vitamin C. Speeds wound healing, regenerates damaged blood vessels, and helps clear potentially pathogenic bacteria from wounds. Also enhances the formation of epidermal tissue, and has anti-inflammatory properties.

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Grapefruit
Grapefruit
Plant
Stimulating, astringent, cleansing, exfoliating?anti-viral, a free-radical invader. Percentage of AHAs

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Grapefruit Essential Oil
Plant derived
An essential oil with a light and fresh aroma expressed from the peel of the fruit. High in vitamin C, it has anti-inflammatory properties, and helps release excess water in the skin?s tissues. It also has a very beneficial effect on congested, oily skin and acne.

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Grapefruit Seed
Plant derived
Extracted from grapefruit seeds and used in combination with propylene glycol and glycerin as a preservative, bactericide, and stabilizer.

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Grapes
Grapes
Plant
Powerful free radical scavenger/anti-oxidant rich in sugars, minerals, flavonoids, vitamins in B group. Promotes cellular health rejuvenation. Percentage of AHAs

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Green Papaya
Papaya
Plant
Fruit used in formulation when it contains the highest content of ?papain?. As the fruit matures this powerful enzyme decreases. To protect this ?active? enzyme a low -heat extraction must be maintained. It is an excellent free-radical scavenger and cellular renewal ingredient with the ability to digest protein, selecting only dead cells without harming the living ones.

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Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Leaves
Green Tea
Plant
Antioxidant. Antibacterial. Source of polyphenols. Potent anti-oxidant that offers 20 times the free radical scavenging effects of vitamin E. It increases the effect of sunscreens, and studies have found that it may help prevent skin cancer from UV rays as well. Green tea also helps reduce irritation caused by glycolic acid, and also has anti-cellulite properties. Anti-carcinogenic. Contains polyphenolic antioxidants which play an important role in the prevention of cell damage. Has a soothing and moisturizing effect.

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Guar Gum
Plant derived
A natural resin from the seeds of an Asian tree. Thickener, plasticizer and emulsifier.

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Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride
Plant derived
Substantive conditioner without build up. Improves wet and dry combing and hair softness.

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Guava
Guava
Plant
Healing, soothing and moisturizing, guava also contains vitamins A & C, beta-carotene and zinc.

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Gums
Polysaccharides of high molecular weight that are scattered in water. They are incomparable to manufactured polymers like the PVP/PVA copolymers. Some gums are used as hair setting products. Natural thickeners are acacia, tragacanth, quince seed, and locust bean.

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Hamamelis Water
(Witch Hazel) An astringent herb that possesses the ability to soothe the skin. It is derived from of the leaves and bark of the Hamamelis Virginnia plant and helps heal blemishes, reduce oiliness, and soothe bruises and sprains.

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Hazel (Corylus Americana) Nut Oil
Hazelnut
Plant
Emollient.

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Health
The state of physical and mental well-being, free from disease.

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Hemp Seed Oil
Hemp Seeds
Plant derived
A natural source of essential fatty acids vital in preventing cell loss, regulating skin's moisture barrier and maintaining elasticity. This oil absorbs directly into the skin and provides important amino acids, linoleic acid, protein and highly prized Omega oils. Skin visibly responds to this rich nourishment.

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Hibiscus (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) Flower
Hibiscus
Plant
Soothes skin irritation and inflammation. Powerful antioxidant properties; high in Vitamin C

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Hinoki
Hinoki
Plant derived
Chamaecyparis obtusa is a conifer in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to central Japan, commonly known as Hinoki cypress or Hinoki. It is a slow-growing tree which grows to 35 m tall with a trunk up to 1 m in diameter. The bark is dark red-brown. The leaves are scale-like, 2-4 mm long, blunt tipped (obtuse), green above, and green below with a white stomatal band at the base of each scale-leaf. The cones are globose, 8-12 mm diameter, with 8-12 scales arranged in opposite pairs. The related Chamaecyparis pisifera (Sawara Cypress) can be readily distinguished in its having pointed tips to the leaves and smaller cones.

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Ho Leaf
Ho Leaf
Plant Derived
Ho Leaf has recently been used as a replacement for (endangered) Rosewood Essential Oil because of their similar chemical properties. It is known to be both stimulating and relaxing to the mind. Ho Leaf is grounding, calming, comforting and valuable during meditation. It is also reported to have anti-depressant, anti-microbial, anti-septic, aphrodisiac, and bactericidal properties.

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Honey
Honey
Bees
Humectant. Soothes irritated skin. A natural skin softener used in formulation as an emollient, humectant! Honey is anti-fungal and anti-bacterial, suggesting that it contains anti-microbial ingredients. It offers high levels of hydrogen peroxide. Peroxide stimulates white blood cells that initiate the body?s immune response to infection. Honey contains other significant amounts of vitamins, including vitamin C and trace amounts of iron, copper, manganese, calcium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus and magnesium, all possibly adding to Honey?s wound healing effect. Some Scientists even suggest that adding honey (or sugar) into sterile butter or margarine will provide home remedy for cuts and scrapes as effective as anything on the market.

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Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle
Plant
Anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, astringent, and an excellent cleanser and purifier. Also helps soften and smooth the skin.

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Hops (Humulus Lupulus) Extract
Organic Hops
Plant
Relaxant, skin softener, anti-microbial.

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Horse Chestnut (Aesculuc Hippocastanum)
Horse Chestnut
Plant
Provides aescin, a saponin that has been shown to support healthy circulation. Aescin promotes healthy tone to the veins of the lower extremities. Helps prevent cellulitis. The astringent tannins, flavonoids and saponins combine to tone and strengthen vein walls, which, in turn, strengthen the outer skin and help reduce the appearance of broken capillaries. Anti-inflammatory.

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Horse Tail
Horse Tails
Plant
A natural astringent, it is very high in silica, which helps to soften, heal and smooth the skin. It helps strengthen vein and capillary walls and is rich in a variety of minerals.

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Horsetail (Equisetum Arvense) Extract
Plant
Tonic for hair care preparations. Astringent for skin care. Contains silicic acid and silicates which are good for nails, hair and skin.

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Humectant
Used to retain moisture. Using a natural humectant in a cosmetic product helps speed moisturization to the skin.

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Hyaluronic Acid
A chemical ingredient that helps skin hold on to moisture. It is the body's natural lubricantand part of the natural moisturizing factor. Collagen and elastin supporter. A protein occurring in the skin that appears to bind water in the interstitial spaces between skin cells while it forms a gel-like substance to hold these cells together.

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Hydrocortisone
A hormone from the adrenal gland. Synthesized for medical use, particularly for application to inflamed skin. It can adversely affect the skin by damaging the collagen of the connective tissues.

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Hydrolyzed Animal Protein
Appears in many shampoos. Improves hair, repairs spilt ends, and gives luster to the hair.

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Hydrolyzed Soy Protein
Plant derived
A naturally derived vegetable protein produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of soy flour. It increases the skin?s moisture binding capabilities, while smoothing and minimizing roughness and wrinkles. Used in hair care, it helps enhance gloss and texture, increase moisture retention, and improve body and manageability.

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Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein
Plant derived
A naturally derived vegetable protein produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten. It has conditioning, moisturizing and film-forming properties. A very effective moisturizer and plant derived replacement for hydrolyzed animal protein.

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Hydrophilic
Cosmetic ingredient that will attract moisture to the skin.

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Hydroxyethylcellulose
Plant derived
Film former with protective properties. Water retention aid, emulsion stabilizer, aqueous viscosity increasing agent.

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Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose
Plant derived
Film former, lather enhancer, thickening agent, emulsion stabilizer, lubricant.

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Hypericum Extract
Plant derived
Also known as St. John's Wort. An extract of the leaves of the stem of the Hypericum Perforatum which is known for its ability to purify and soothe the skin.

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Imidazolidinyl Urea
Commonly used cosmetic preservative. Can cause contact dermatitis.

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In Vitro
Experiments carried out in an artificial environment, outside of living organisms.

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In Vivo
Within a living organism, as opposed to in vitro.

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Infusion
The addition of an herb or other natural substance to an oil or other liquid to extract the fragrance or flavor into that liquid.

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Iodine
Plant derived
Nonmetallic element. Occurs in seawater and in plants and animals that grow in the sea. When applied topically, it has antiseptic benefits.

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Irish Moss
Plant
Also known as carrageenan. A seaweed that looks like moss which is used as a soothing emollient. Brownish purple algae that grows attached to rocks at low tide marks. It is a rich source of the emollient and moisture binding substance carageenan, and many micro-nutrients.

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Iron Oxides
Mineral
Compounds of iron that are used as colorings in some cosmetics. Also known as jewelers' rouge or rust. A naturally occurring compound of iron and oxygen. Used as a natural colorant.

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Isopropyl Alcohol
Synthetic
Artificial fatty alcohol. Used as an antiseptic, a solvent, a rubbing alcohol, and as a source for acetone.

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Isopropyl Lanolate, Laurate, Oleate, Palmitate, Stearate, And Isostearate
These are esters of isopropyl alcohol and various fatty acids.

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Isopropyl Myristate
Synthetic
This synthetic chemical is used to reduce the greasy feel caused by the high oil content of other ingredients.

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Ivy
Plant
Antibacterial and soothing, especially for burned skin. A vasoconstrictor that helps diminish redness and blotchiness, and lower tissue sensitivity. Also helps reduce and prevent excess water retention in the skin?s tissues, and decrease the appearance of cellulite.

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Ivy Extract
Plant derived
An extract of the climbing plant. Used for its anti-septic properties.

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Jasmine
Jasmine
Plant
Moisturizing, and calming. Excellent for dry, sensitive and mature skin.

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Jasmine Oil
Plant derived
Often used as a source of perfume. The oil is considered antidepressant and relaxing, and is used externally to soothe dry or sensitive skin.

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Jojoba Beads
Plant derived
Free-flowing spheres made from natural jojoba ester. Used as a body/facial scrub, the microspheres have no jagged edges to leave micro-laceration in the skin the way walnut shell, pumice or polyethene in other facial scrubs can.

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Jojoba Butter And Oil
Plant derived
Extracted from the edible seeds of the desert shrub Simondsia californica. Used as a lubricant and hair conditioner. Often used in shampoos, moisturizers, and sunscreens. May cause allergic reactions.

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Jojoba Oil/ Jojoba Wax
Plant derived
(Technically a thick, waxy oil) The ?wax? is a semi-solid fraction of jojoba oil in the form of tiny, smooth ?beads?. Used in facial and body scrubs for their gentle polishing action, they slowly melt on the skin, releasing their moisturizing properties. The oil is expressed from the vanilla shaped beans found on shrubs in the arid deserts of southwest America. A plant oil most similar to skin?s own sebum; it can effectively penetrate the skin because of its small molecular size. A natural cellular renewal ingredient.

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Juniper Berry Essential Oil
Juniper Berry Oil
Plant derived
Beneficial for oily, congested, and acneic skin. Also helps treat dermatitis, seborrhea of the scalp, and dermatitis. Astringent, antiseptic, healing, and purifying, it helps ease a wide variety of skin conditions and inflammation.

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Juniper Extract
Juniper Berry
Plant derived
Extract obtained from the sweet pulp of the juniper berry. Works as a natural skin and hair freshener, and has anti-itching qualities.

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Juniper Oil
Plant derived
Has a slightly warming effect on the skin and is thought to promote removal of waste products from underlying tissues. Effectively tones skin.

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Kaolin
Kaolin Powder
Mineral
Moisture absorbent. Oil absorbent. Skin protectant. A very fine white ?China? clay with drawing and tightening properties that gently absorbs surface oil secreted by the skin. It can stimulate circulation deep into the capillaries.Used in manufacturing high-grade porcelain, paper, paint, cloth, soaps, and many powdered and covering cosmetics. It's also used for its dehydrating and astringent effect.

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Kelp
Plant
Seaweed and kelp contain those same vital nutrients, trace elements, and amino acids present in human blood plasma. Because of this, they can penetrate the skin more readily than most other ingredients. Minerals from these algae are rich in anti-oxidants, vitamins, and mucilage that can protect, hydrate and soften the skin.

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Keratin
Plant derived
This insoluble albumoid (fiber protein) can be found in horny tissues like the hair and nails. High in sulfur, it's quite strong, but it is subject to chemical penetration.

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Ketones
Synthetic
These odorous substances, used in nail polish removers, are toxic.

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Kojic Acid
Plant derived
Derived from sugar mold. It is a tyrosinase inhibitor that helps slow the production of melanin. It lightens discoloration, inhibits UV caused irritation, and promotes healing.A natural skin lightener from a mushroom extract, with a remarkable ability to fade age spots & lighten skin complexion , a gentle alternative to drug-like hydroquinone. Not as strong as Licorice PTH for fading specific spots or splotches, but more suitable in whitening over-all skin complexion. No known side effect for extended use.

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Kukui Nut Oil
Plant derived
From the Hawaiian kukui nut, it is very emollient, very moisturizing. High in vitamins A, E & F, it revitalizes, rejuvenates and softens the skin.

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Labeling
The Cosmetic Labeling Act ( Fair packaging and labeling act ) marked a major step in helping consumers become aware of what they put into their hair and rub onto their faces. Passed April 14, 1977, it requires that ingredients be listed, in descending order of concentration, on the labels of most cosmetics. Soap, however, excluded, and flavors, fragrances and trade secrets don't have to be listed specifically.

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Lactic Acid
One of the five most beneficial AHAs, it is naturally occurring in milk fermentation. A mild exfoliant that helps reduce wrinkles and improve the skin?s texture. Very softening and moisturizing.Naturally occurs in products made by bacterial fermentation. Produces pH levels like those of the hair and skin. It also helps moisturize the skin naturally.

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Lactose Peroxidase & Glucose Oxidaise
One part of this enzyme system is extracted from milk whey lactose peroxidase), the other (glucose oxidase) is a naturally occurring nutritional carbohydrate sourced from microbial culture. These natural enzymes work together to prevent spoilage and bacterial growth in natural formulas.

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Lake Colors
Synthetic
These solid forms of dyes are made by mixing liquid dye with an insoluble powder like aluminum oxide. They may be natural, but they're usually manufactured and are made from coal tar.

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Laminaria Digitata
Plant
A giant kelp rich in iodine and other trace elements and co-enzymes which makes it valuable as a skin supplement for normalizing cellular functions.

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Lanolin
Animal
This yellow, semisolid, fatty discharge from sheep's wool is used as an emulsifier, a base, and an ointment. There have been some reports of allergic reactions.

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L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
Vitamin
??? Vitamin C acid is a powerful anti-oxidant and inhibitor of melanin formation. Stimulates collagen production, promotes healthy looking skin. By itself, this ingredient is very unstable, but once stabilized as an integral part of the C-complex in the formula, it becomes bio-available to the skin, when applied.

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Lauramide Dea
This white, waxy, nonionic, artificial chemical is used in shampoos, bubble baths, and detergents as a surfactant and foam-builder. It may be mildly irritating to the skin.

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Lauryl Alcohol
This fatty alcohol, often derived from coconut oil, is used to make anionic surfactants. It may be natural or man-made.

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Lavender (Lavandula Angustifolia) Flowers
Lavender
Plant
Antiseptic, calming, improves circulation.

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Lavender (Lavandula Angustifolia) Water
Plant
Antiseptic, calming, improves circulation.

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Lavender Essential Oil
Plant derived
A rainbow of beneficial rewards for the skin. It is astringent, calming, cleansing, moisturizing, softening, rejuvenating?and soothing with anti-bacterial properties.

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Lavendin Essential Oil
Lavendin
Plant derived
A hybrid plant developed in 1900 by crossing true lavender (L. angustifolia) with spike lavender or aspic (L. latifolia). It has a light floral aroma, similar to Lavender, just sharper. It is anti-inflammatory, eases tension, and is excellent for wound healing.

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Lecinol S10
Natural lecithin forms liposome, the most common phospholipid found in all layers of skin, makes skin soft & supple.

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Lecithin
Used as an emulsifier and surfactant. High in the B vitamins choline and inositol. It's found in egg yolk and manufactured from soy oil. Present in all living cells, it is a waxy oil derived from soybeans and eggs that has great water binding abilities, and acts as an anti-oxidant, and emulsifier.

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Lemon
Lemon
Plant
Antibacterial, softening, anti-wrinkle, anti-oxidant, antiseptic. Percentage of AHAs

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Lemon Essential Oil
Plant derived
Expressed from the outer rind of the lemon, it acts as a mild bleach that can brighten dull skin and calm redness. Naturally astringent, antiseptic and bactericidal; abundant in vitamins A, B & C.

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Lemon Verbena
Lemon Verbena
Plant derived
A deciduous perennial shrub native to Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, and Peru. This plant was brought to Europe by the Spanish in the 17th century. It grows to a height of 1 to 3 metres and exudes a powerful lemony scent. It prefers full sun, a lot of water, and a light loam soil, and is sensitive to cold. The light green leaves are lancet-shaped, and its tiny flowers bloom lavender or white in August or September.

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Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Schoenanthus)
Lemongrass
Plant
Cleansing agent. Astringent, stimulant, toner. Anti-microbial. Antioxidant.

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Lemongrass Essential Oil
Plant derived
Distilled from the grassy herb of the same name; it purifies, and hydrates. Has antibacterial, anti-oxidant and cleansing action.

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Licorice Pth
Plant derived
Specially purified extract of licorice root, with high percentage of the glabridin component, effective in inhibiting melanin production, responsible for the dark pigmentation of the skin. Laboratory studies indicate this concentrate to be 7 times more effective than drug-like hydroquinone, commonly used by dermatologists for skin whitening.

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Licorice Root (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) Root
Licorice
Plant
Soothing, anti-inflammmatory, anti-allergic, antibacterial, antioxidant. Rebalances dermal cells & helps reduce the formation of melanin, (pigment that gives skin color). Offers significant healing effects, plus firming, soothing, emollient and anti-bacterial benefits.

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Lime Essential Oil
Lime
Plant derived
Antiseptic, astringent, bactericidal, restorative and refreshing; high in vitamins A, B & C.

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Lime Oil
Plant derived
Shares many qualities with lemon oil. Has many antiseptic and restorative properties.

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Limnanthis Alba Oil
Plant derived
From the seeds of the one year old Limnanthis alba plants of Oregon. Its 97% fatty acid content and small molecular structure make it one of the most penetrating oils available in skin care?and?it is one of the most stable lipids known. This oil has a beautiful ?slip?.

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Linden Extract
Plant derived
From the flowers of the Linden tree. The flowers contain essential oils which are celebrated for their brightening and soothing qualities.

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Linoleic Acid
Plant derived
Essential fatty acid, found in cold pressed oils, used as an emulsifier in cosmetics.

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Lipids
These materials are soluble in alcohol (and other solvents) but not in water. Includes fatty acids, fats, waxes, fixed oils, phosphatides, cerebrosides, and sometimes steroids and carotenoids. Along with proteins and carbohydrates, lipids constitute the structure of cells. When used on the skin, they have a moisturizing and cream action.

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Liposomes
Microscopic sacs obtained from natural or synthetic sources. Because these can easily penetrate the skin, in lotions and creams liposomes are used to deliver substances, contained within the sac, to internal skin layers. Hollow spherical phospholipids are used to encapsulate both water and oil soluble ingredients. Liposomes enter deep within the skin structure, slowly releasing their properties. They allow cosmetic ingredients that normally would not be absorbed to penetrate the skin.

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Locust Bean Gum
Plant derived
The locust bean has been known for its thickening properties since ancient times. It is produced by milling the seeds of the carob tree, and also has moisturizing, regenerating and smoothing properties.

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Lycopene
Plant derived
Abundant in the red flesh and skin of the tomato. It appears in very high concentration when tomatoes are processed?and is the most active carotenoid (one of nature?s most important anti-oxidant families) in terms of anti-oxidant activity. It appears to strengthen cellular integrity and function. (Lycopene is one of the top 3 carotenoids found in human tissue and blood plasma). It is more than twice as powerful as beta-carotene at quenching free radicals.

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Macadamia Nut Oil
Macadamia Nuts
Plant derived
A very beneficial oil for dry, mature skins. It has a high palmitoleic oil content, which decreases in the skin as we age. This emollient oil penetrates easily and helps products glide on the skin.

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Magnesium
Mineral
A lightweight mineral occurring in nature. It is especially abundant in specific varieties of sea algae and salts from the sea. Magnesium helps re-mineralize and soothe the skin.

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Magnesium Aluminum Silicate
Mineral
Flaky white solid. Used as a filler and thickener in cosmetics. Especially used in antiperspirants, creams, and shaving creams.

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Magnesium Stearate
Mineral
Used as a filler in cosmetics.

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Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salts)
Mineral
Detoxicant. Helps remove built-up dirt and soap film. Soothes scalp irritation.

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Mandarin Essential Oil
Mandarin
Plant derived
Antiseptic, cleansing, toning and anti-bacterial. One of the oils that is safe to use during pregnancy. It is also useful for treating acne, oily skin and to reduce excess fluid retention and obesity.

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Manganese
Mineral
A mineral occurring abundantly in mineral mud, sea salts and specific sea plants. It is soothing and calming to the skin.

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Mango Butter
Mango
Plant derived
Extracted from the fruit kernels of the Mango Tree. This rich butter is known for its emollient, hydrating, and healing properties. It softens and protects dry skin, and is especially useful for renewing skin suffering from the effects of sun or wind.

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Marigold
Plant
See Calendula.

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Marshmallow (Althaea Officinalis)
Marshmallow
Plant
Anti-inflammatory. Emollient. Skin softening and soothing. A soothing and healing herb that benefits chapped, dry and irritated skin. It is also beneficial in the treatment of wounds, burns, skin inflammation, insect bites, and bruises.

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May Chang
May Chang
Plant derived
A small tropical tree with fragrant, lemongrass-scented leaves and flowers. The small fruits that it produces are similar to peppers, from which the name 'cubeba' is derived. The essential oil is chemically similar to lemongrass Melissa and other oils rich in citral, and the therapeutic effects are similar to Lemongrass.

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Mea
Monoethanolamine. See alkyloamides.

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Meadowfoam (Limnanthes Alba) Seed Oil
Plant
Emollient

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Meadowsweet
Plant derived
An anti-oxidant that helps heal inflammatory skin conditions. Contains a high percentage of natural salicylic acid to help smooth, re-texurize and reduce inflammation in congested tissue. It also has toning and healing properties due to its astringent action.?Botanical extract of Spiraea Ulmaira, a natural source of beta hydroxy acid, an effective exfoliant deep into the pores of the skin. It has an antiseptic quality due to its salicylic acid content, sort of herbal aspirin.

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Melon Extract
Plant derived
Melon has natural cleansing properties as well as the ability to soften and soothe the skin.

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Menthol
Synthetic
Mild, local anesthetic. Counter-irritant. Cooling to skin. Derived from peppermint. Has soothing properties if used in concentrations of 1% or less.

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Methyl Acetate
Synthetic
Artificial chemical used as an aromatic and solvent. It can cause dryness.

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Methyl Ethyl Ketone (Mek)
Synthetic
Flammable, colorless liquid. Primarily used as a solvent. Skin irritant.

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Methyl Gluceth-10
Synthetic
A naturally-derived emollient, noted for its safety & mildness

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Methylparaben
Synthetic
A preservative with anti-microbial abilities that prevents the formation of bacteria, and is effective in low concentrations. Non-sensitizing and non-irritating.

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Methylsulfonyylmethane
Synthetic
(MSM) An organic bio-available form of sulfur, which is the ?nuts and bolts? of skin proteins. The sulfur bond is responsible for the strength, shape and resilience of the collagen, elastin, and keratin structures of the skin.

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Mica
Mineral
Somewhat shiny silicate minerals split into very thin sheets. Used in eye cosmetics to provide sparkle.

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Milk Bath
Animal
A bath preparation made with milk products as the base. A natural product, it is soothing to the skin.

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Milk Protein
Animal
Obtained from a whole cow's milk. For centuries, milk has been used as a natural, soothing skin cleanser and softener.

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Millet Extract
Millet
Plant derived
??? An extract from Millet Seed Grain with a high concentration of ceramides, a lipid component of the intercellular material in the stratum corneum (SC) that is responsible for effective skin hydration.

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Mineral Oil
Mineral
A liquid mixture of hydrocarbons gathered from petroleum. Light mineral oil is an ingredient of choice as an essential moisturizer for psoriasis, primarily functioning as an occlusive barrier to retard moisture loss without restricting essential ingredient absorption. In the case of a psoriatic condition the water loss from the external skin layers can exceed the rate of replacement from below, hence as part of our formulation, it is necessary to place an occlusive barrier onto the surface of the skin to retard water loss.

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Mix Fruit Acids
Plant derived
??? Proprietary mix of extracts of sugancane, citrus, apple, willow bark & green tea, with similar efficacy as alpha hydroxy acids. Formulas with this mix of all natural extracts exhibit much less irritancy factor when compared to the synthetic glycolic acid products.

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Moisturizer
When externally used on the hair or skin raises the moisture content.

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Monoethanolamine
Synthetic
Liquid amino alcohol that is used as an humectant and emulsifier in cosmetics.

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Mucopolysaccarides
Synthetic
A gelatinous, basic component of the skin also known as glycosaminoglycans that help maintain a moist environment for collagen, elastin and dermal cells while providing support for connective tissue and mucous membranes. They comprise a large class of ingredients found universally in skin tissue, including hyaluronic acid. A humectant and skin softener.

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Mugwort (Artemesia Vulgarius) Extract
Plant
Strong anti-stinging, anti-irritation and anti-inflammatory properties. A stimulating herb that, when combined in a complex with Algae, has anti-stinging, anti-inflammatory and anti-irritant properties. Helps relieve swelling.

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Myrrh (Commiphoria Myrrh)
Plant
Astringent, antiseptic, healing agent.

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Napca
NaPCA : A natural moisturizing factor (NMF's) found in abundance in skin, decreasing with age. This ingredient increases softness & resilience to skin & hair.

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Natural
Ingredients produced entirely from extracts taken from plants or animals, with no synthetic substances or additives.

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Natural Spray
A spray in pump form, using no aerosol or chemical additives.

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Neroli Essential Oil
Plant derived
(Orange Blossom) Extracted by steam distillation from the small, white, waxy flowers of the bitter-orange tree. It takes about 1000 lbs. of orange blossoms to make 1 lb. of this precious oil. Neroli helps to regenerate skin cells and is useful for healing scar tissue and stretch marks. It is also astringent, bactericidal, moisturizing, softening and rejuvenating. The fragrance is sweet, floral and slightly evocative.

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Nettle (Urtica Dioica)
Nettle
Plant
Astringent. Toner for hair care and growth. Contains Vitamin C and silicic acids.High in vitamin E, this soothing herb is cleansing, detoxifying, and help release excess fluid in the skin?s tissues due to its flavonoid and potassium content. It also has excellent antibacterial properties, treats inflammatory skin conditions, eczema and insect bites.

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Nitrocellulose
Flammable man-made substance. Used as an emulsifier and protective film in cosmetics, especially nail polish.

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Nitrosamines
Carcinogenic compounds formed from secondary amines (nitosating agents) and nitrous acid. Typical nitrosating agents used in cosmetic formulations are DEA, MEA, and TEA.

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Non-Acnegenic
Will not clog oil glands to produce a break-out on people prone to acne.

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Non-Comedogenic
Does not clog oil glands to cause blemishes.

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Oat (Avena Sativa) Straw
Plant
Emollient, cleansing, anti-itching, anti-inflammatory. High in betaglucan

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Oat Beta Glucans
Plant derived
A blend of oat extract & refined oat proteins. Together they form an invisible layer over the skin to help retain moisture while promoting the repair of skin cells. High levels of naturally occurring anti-oxidants help protect against cellular damage. Reduces damage from UVA/UVB irradiation and dramatically increases cell renewal. Helps increase in new collagen production and reduce wrinkles. Soothing, healing!

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Oat Milk
Plant derived
Exceptionally soothing and moisturizing. It is an excellent addition to any skin care product for dry, sensitive, or aging complexions. Dramatically reduces irritation from exfoliation treatments and damage from UV exposure. It also has anti-oxidant properties.

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Oat Protein
Plant derived
An amino acid with soothing properties. Stimulating, cleansing.

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Oatmeal
Oatmeal
Plant
Ground oat kernels (after husks have been removed). A natural, mild exfoliant. Soothing to the skin. Found in Oatmeal-Lavender Cleanser and Oatmeal-Mint Cleanser.

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Oats
Oats
Plant
Calming, cleansing, softening, and moisturizing. See also Oat Beta Glucan.

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Oil Glands
Oil/Sebaceous glands produce a waxy-fatty substance called sebum which lubricates the skin and protects it from moisture loss.

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Oil-Based
A product in which oil soluble solutions are the major part.

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Oleic Acid
Fatty acid that is a common constituent of many animals and vegetables. It is a common cosmetic ingredient.

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Oleth-2 Through Oleth-50
These polyethylene glycol ethers of oleic alcohol are used as surfactants.

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Oleyl Alcohol
Fatty alcohol. Oily, unsaturated liquid found in fish oils. Is used to make surface-active agents.

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Olive (Olea Europaea) Oil
Olive
Plant
Emollient.

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Olive (Olea Europaea) Water
Plant
Antioxidant.

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Orange Blossom
Plant
A pleasant fragrance from steam distillate of bitter orange blossom, excellent for freshening skin. The flower is anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial & anti-fungal.

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Orange Essential Oil
Plant derived
(Sweet Blossom) Astringent, bactericidal, moistening, softening and rejuvenating. Makes skin more vibrant and supple.

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Orange Peel
Organge
Plant
Anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal. Contains flavonoids and vitamins A, B, C & E.

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Organic
Natural chemical compounds found in nature, void of synthetic substances. Also known as all-natural.

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Organic Palm
Organic Palm
Plant derived
Palm oil is a form of edible vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. The palm fruit is the source of both palm oil (extracted from palm fruit) and palm kernel oil (extracted from the fruit seeds). Palm oil itself is reddish because it contains a high amount of beta-carotene.

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Oxybenzone
Sunscreening agent derived from isopropanol.

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Ozokerite
Naturally occurring waxlike mineral. An emulsifier and thickening agent used in lipstick and cream rouge.

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Palm Oil
Plant derived
White to yellowish fat. Used to make soaps, shampoos, ointments, and margarine.

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Palmarosa Essential Oil
Palmarosa
Plant derived
Brings exceptional hydration to the skin. Effectively renews skin cells and regulates sebum production. It is valuable in treating minor skin infections, due to its antifungal and antiviral action.

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Palmitate
Used in baby oils, bath oils, eye creams, hair conditioners, and moisturizers. It can cause allergic reactions in some people.

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Palmitic Acid
Plant derived
Fatty acid from palm oil.

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Panthenol (Vitamin B5)
In the skin it aids moisture retention (ability to both hold and attract water) and increases elasticity. It helps heal skin problems such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis and diaper rash and soothes burns. In hair care it increases the water content of the hair shaft, which leads to increased elasticity. It is an excellent scalp nutrient and hydrator, which creates more manageability, better shine, less static electricity, and improved softness.

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Papain
Plant derived
An enzyme found in papaya, and most abundantly from unripe green papaya. An excellent free-radical scavenger and cellular renewal ingredient with the ability to digest protein, selecting only dead cells without harming the living ones.

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Papaya
Plant
See Green Papaya.

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Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (Paba)
Vitamin
Found in Vitamin B complex. Used in sunscreen formulations and as an anesthetic in sunburn products. Can cause allergic reactions.

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Parabens
Synthetic
Used to preserve cosmetics. They are not effective with shampoos or with products that contain proteins.

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Paraffin
Waxy, crystalline mixture. Used as a thickener for cosmetics.

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Patchouli
Patchouli
Plant
Native to Malaysia and the Philippines, Patchouli has been used extensively in Asian Medicine. Its most common use has been as an aphrodisiac. It is thought to have a regenerative effect.

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Patchouli Essential Oil
Plant derived
A musky smelling, exotic oil. Helps relieve dry, mature skin. Also very beneficial for dermatitis, eczema, chapped skin, and acne. Used in perfumery for it's long-lasting aroma.

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Peach
Peach
Plant
Rich in sugars, minerals (zinc), vitamins (vitamins A & C, beta carotene) and organic acids, particularly citric and malic. Moisturizing, soothing, toning, exfoliating. Percentage of AHAs

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Pectin
Plant derived
An enzyme extracted from citrus fruits and apples. Emulsifier, thickener, and gelling agent that is very soothing to the skin. Used in cosmetics as an emulsifier and thickener. Contains partially methoxylated polygalacturonic acids.

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Peg 120 Methy Glucose Dioleate
Synthetic
Conditioning agent, cleanser and thickener derived from corn.

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Peg Compounds
Synthetic
Artificial. Used as solvents, bases, carriers, emulsifiers, and dispersants.

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Peg20 Methyl Glucose
Plant derived
Corn glucose, auxiliary emulsifier.

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Peppermint Oil
Peppermint
Plant derived
An excellent antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. Soothes and tones blemished, irritated skin. Cooling.

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Peptides
Natural or artificial. Composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. When peptide bonds in the hair are broken, the result is damaged hair.

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Perfume
The most concentrated form of synthetically prepared fragrance, applied to the skin to enhance the nature of one?s image. Dating back to ancient times, perfume was created by the Egyptians of resins and wood mixed with oils and water. Today?s perfumes are an enhanced blend of essential oils, alcohol and water, and the ?secret? ingredients of its creator.

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Peru Balsam
Plant derived
Very healing for eczema and other skin conditions. In addition, it is also considered antibacterial and is beneficial in the treatment of acne. It is a resin extracted from tree bark and imparts a warm, vanilla-like fragrance.

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Petroleum Jelly
Semisolid mixture. Obtained from petroleum.

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Phenoxyethanol
Synthetic
Preservative. Protects product from microbial contamination.

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Phlorogine
??? A marine seaweed extract from France. The lipidic components of this seaweed address the direct causes of oily and acneic skin disorder. It controls inflammation, regulate oiliness, purifies and moisturizes the skin.

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Phospholipids
Plant derived
Skin conditioning agent. Dispersing, wetting, emulsifying and stabilizing agent. Solubilizing agent. A cholesterol-like compound naturally found in all layers of the skin, except the stratum corneum. It is one of the Natural Moisturizing Factors (NMFs) found in the skin.

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Phosphoric Acid
Clear, viscous liquid. Use in cosmetics as an antioxidant, sequestrant, and acidifier.

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Photo Damage/ Photoaging
Changes the appearance and function of the skin due to repeated sun exposure and not to the passage of time; may result in skin cancer. Sun protection is the principle means of protecting photoaging changes. Skin cancer incidence can also be reduced.

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Phototoxic
Medications or food which render the skin sensitive to light (sun) thereby causing an adverse reaction.

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Phytocosmetic
Plant derived
A cosmetic made mainly from vegetable sources.

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Pineapple Extract
Plant derived
Pineapple's anti-inflammation and anti-irritation qualities, combined with its ability to refine the skin make it excellent for face care products.

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Pineapple Juice
Plant derived
Contains abundance of the enzyme ?bromelin? that dissolves dead skin cells. Bromelin is an enzyme that can rid the skin of debris up to 1000 times their weight of irritants that clog and enlarge pores.

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Pine Oil
Pine Oil
Plant derived
Pine oil is an essential oil obtained by the steam distillation of needles, twigs and cones from a variety of species of pine, particularly Pinus sylvestris.

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Pink Grapefruit
Plant
See Grapefruit.

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Pistachio
Pistachios
Plant
Nut rich in calcium, thiamine, phosphorus, iron and vitamin A. Percentage of AHAs

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Plantain
Plant derived
Aids cell proliferation, is astringent, emollient and healing. An excellent ingredient for treating and soothing wounds, burns, dermatitis, and insect bites.

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Polawax
Plant derived
A vegetable-derived, nonionic self-emulsifying & stabilizing agent.

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Polymers, Polymeric, Polymerization
Synthetic
Used in cosmetics to keep sunscreens from washing off, in hair-setting products, and as binders in skin creams. Plastic fingernails are also produced by polymerization.

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Polysorbate 20
Plant derived
Mild solubilizer and stabilizer and dispersing agentfor essential oils. Skin cleanser, wetting agent, plasticizer. Derived from sorbitol.

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Polysorbate 60
Plant derived
Mild solubilizer for essential oils. Skin cleanser, wetting agent, plasticizer. An emulsifier and wetting agent that also acts as a stabilizer for essential oils in water. An ester of sorbitol.

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Polysorbates
Synthetic
Fatty acid esters. Used in many cosmetics as emulsifiers. Polysorbates are assigned different numerical values according to their formulas and whether they're intended to be used in foods or cosmetics.

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Polyvinylpyrrolidone
Synthetic
Commonly known as PVP. Used in hairspray and other cosmetics. Inhaled particles may cause problems in the lungs of sensitive people.

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Pomegranate
Pomegranate
Plant
Anti-oxidant, anti-viral. It has the remarkable benefit of boosting the sun protection factor (SPF) of topical sunscreens. The same SPF protection levels are maintained using less chemicals and more anti-oxidants.

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Potassium Sorbate
Synthetic
Yeast and mold inhibitor

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Preservatives
Synthetic
Researchers have become increasingly aware of the dangers associated with microbial contamination of topical skin products and know more today than ever about the sources of contamination. Unfortunately the battle against contamination is far from won as adaptable organisms continue to cause problems resulting in bacterial infections of the skin.

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Propylene Glycol
Synthetic
One of the most widely used ingredients in cosmetics. Most common moisture carrying vehicle other than water. Permeates skin better than glycerin, but causes more sensitivity reactions.Ideally from vegetable glycerine & grain alcohol. In general cosmetics, most used are of synthetic nature.

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Propylparaben
Synthetic
Used as a preservative, bactericide and fungicide, it is effective against a large variety of contaminants at low concentration. Non-sensitizing and non-irritating.

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Protein
Protein consists of amino acids and constitutes about 15% of human body weight. Protein is of critical importance in the structure and function of cells. Recently the use of proteins has been broadened to skin care since many skin problems such as chapping and dryness appear to be associated with damage to or actual loss of skin protein. A class of chemicals necessary for all cellular functions. Protein is made up of complex combinations of amino acids and have a good affinity with the skin. They help retain water and reduce water loss on the skin?s surface.

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Psoriasis
A chronic inflammatory skin disease of unknown cause in which skin cells replicate at a rapid rate. Psoriasis cannot be passed from one person to another, though it is more likely to occur in people whose family members have it. The rash usually consists of scaly red patches that can cause itching. Certain conditions, e.g., infection, some drugs, climate and perhaps hormonal factors and smoking, may trigger attacks.

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Pumice
Mineral
Finely ground volcanic rock used in facial and body scrubs to gently polish the skin to remove dead cells that accumulate on the surface.

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Pumkin Seed Oil
Plant derived
Soothing, moisturizing, and healing, high in sterols and vitamin E.

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Pumpkin
Pumpkins
Plant
Enzymes in the whole ?pumpkin?, including the seeds, exfoliate dead skin cells while promoting skin repair. It cleanses, conditions and moisturizes while helping to firm the skin. Pumpkin is an excellent source of anti-oxidants, vitamins and essential elements the skin needs.

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Pvp
Synthetic
Abbreviation for Polyvinylpyrrolidone. A faintly yellow, solid, plastic resin resembling albumen. Used to give a softer set in shampoos, hairsprays, and lacquers; also a carrier in emollient creams, liquid lip rouge, and face rouge; also a clarifier in vinegar and a plasma expander in medicine. The CIR Expert panel says based on available data, it is safe as a cosmetic ingredient

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Pyridoxine Hydrochloride
Vitamin
(Vitamin B6) A skin conditioning agent that has antibacterial and anti-oxidant benefits. Also commonly used for hair care products.

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Pyrus Malus Fruit
Plant
(Apple) Rich in natural pectin, containing polysaccharides, vitamin B, flavonoids and a high level of ?malic? acid. This acid has been scientifically proven to be one of the 5 most beneficial AHAs that help stimulate and speed skin cell renewal. The other acids are ?glycolic?, from the heart of the raw cane sugar plant, ?citric?, from citrus fruit, ?lactic? from milk, and ?tartaric? from fruit fermentation, similar to that found in wine sediment. Astringent, cleansing, smoothing and tightening. Contains zinc.

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Quaternary Ammonium Salts
MIneral
Used as water repellents, fungicides, emulsifiers, paper and fabric softeners, antistatic agents, and corrosion inhibitors. Their use in cosmetics, especially in hair conditioners and creme rinses, came from the paper and fabric industries.

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Quaternium-15
Synthetic
Toxic chemical. More effective against bacteria than against molds and yeast.

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Quillaia
Plant derived
(Soap Bark) A natural surfactant used for its cleansing properties. It has excellent foaming and cleansing abilities, containing 9-10% saponins. Derived from dried inner bark of the South American tree quillaja saponaria. Healing properties, emulsifier.

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Raspberry
Raspberries
Plant
Rich in minerals, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), flavonoids, tannins, and ellagic acid. A super anti-oxidant that is soothing, astringent and exfoliating. Percentage of AHAs

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Raw Cane Sugar
Plant
Rich in ?natural? glycolic acids, it has cellular renewal properties. Raw sugar cane is particularly rich in mucilage, thus bringing its softening and moisturizing activity at the skin level. Percentage AHAs

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Red Clover Blossom
Red Clover
Plant
A perennial plant that produces abundant blossoms. Astringent, soothing and conditioning.

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Red Raspberry (Rubus Idaeus)
Plant
Astringent, healing, soothing.

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Red Sandalwood
Red Sandalwood
Plant derived
Sandalwood is a name for fragrant woods and their essential oil. These are mostly derived from trees of the Santalaceae family. The name most frequently refers to species of the genus, Santalum; particuarly Santalum album and Santalum spicatum. Species of this tree are found in Nepal, Southern India, Sri Lanka, Hawaii, South Pacific islands and Australia. It is used as fragrance in perfume and incense, and for woodworking. Some temples have been built with sandalwood in India and these retain the aroma for centuries.

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Retin A (Also Called Retinoic Acid)
A prescription drug for the treatment of acne. Is also believed to help repair sun damage.

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Retinol A (Vitamin A)
Keeps tissues and skin healthy, Retinol is a form of Vitamin A that plays an important role in anti-aging skin care.

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Retinoic Acid
A derivative of Vitamin A.

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Retinoids/Retinol
A series of compounds derived from Vitamin A. These compounds are found in skin and aid in its normal functioning.

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Rice (Oryza Sativa) Cereal
Plant
Exfolliant.

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Rice Bran Oil
Organic Rice
Plant derived
Rich in vitamin E. It has a smaller molecular size than wheat germ oil, making it much easier to penetrate the skin. Contains high percentages of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids.

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Roman Chamomile
Roman Chamomile
Plant derived
Roman Chamomile is a low perennial plant found in dry fields and around gardens and cultivated grounds. It has daisy-like white flowers that is found in Europe, North America, and Argentina. The stem is procumbent, the leaves alternate, bipinnate, finely dissected, and downy to glabrous. The solitary, terminal flowerheads, rising 8 to twelve inches above the ground, consist of prominent yellow disk flowers and silver-white ray flowers.

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Rose Bud
Rose
Plant
Soothing, balancing and cooling to inflamed skin. Helpful with oily or mottled complexions, but is also beneficial for all skin types.

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Rose Essential Oil
Plant derived
Very precious and costly, rose has been used throughout time as a beauty treatment. Especially good for dry, sensitive, or mature skins, its rejuvenating properties also relieve inflammation, heat and itching of the skin. Helps reduce redness from broken capillaries.

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Rose Geranium
Rose Geranium
Plant derived
A woody plant (Pelargonium graveolens) having rose-pink flowers and fragrant, deeply palmately lobed leaves used for flavoring and in perfumery. This crisp and rosy essential oil stimulates the adrenal cortex and helps to balance the nervous system, while lifting depression and relieving anxiety and has a regulatory effect on the hormonal system, clearing sluggish and oily skin, while assisting with healing. Geranium balances the production of sebum making it valuable for skin that is excessively oily or dry. Its spicy, floral aroma is also well known for its balancing and refreshing qualities.

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Rose Hips
Rose Hips
Plant
Scarlet fruit (called "hips") come from the Dog Rose and have high levels of vitamins. The fruit of the rose bush, high in vitamin C; tonic, astringent, soothing, moisturizing and hydrating to the skin. Helps protect against capillary damage and firms and tones the tissues.

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Rose Oil
Plant derived
The healing virtues of the rose have been known since antiquity. Helps soothe dry, sensitive skin.

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Rose Water
Plant derived
Rose water is one of the most ancient and revered beauty treatments used today. It ?enlivens? dry, mature and wrinkled complexions, and also to soothes sensitive skin at any age.

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Rosemary
Rosemary
Plant
An herb with anti-oxidant, cleansing, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, moisturizing, softening, rejuvenating properties for the skin. Also very stimulating and invigorating for the scalp.

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Rosemary Oil
Plant derived
A physical and mental stimulant, and an astringent healer used to treat muscle soreness.

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Rosewood Essential Oil
Plant derived
Cellular stimulant, and strengthens connective tissues. Very mild and safe for mature, and sensitive skin.

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Safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius) Oil
Plant
Skin emollient and moisturizer. Imparts lubricity. Provides slip and lubricity to hair which improves detangling, combing and shine.

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Sage
Sage
Plant
A potent anti-oxidant with antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory properties. It refreshes, balances and tones, and has a mild cleansing action makes it ideal for sensitive skin.

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Salicylic Acid
Occurs naturally in wintergreen leaves, sweet birch and other plants. Topically it is an anesthetic, a sunscreen and a fungicide with a mild peeling effect. Found in the leaves of wintergreen, meadowsweet o r willow bark. Unlike synthetically produced salicylic acid used in other products, the natural extract used exhibits no irritation to the skin, still with the same efficacy & potency 5 - 6 times for the same concentration of AHAs.

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Sandalwood Essential Oil
Plant derived
Promotes cellular turnover, and has soothing, astringent, and antibacterial properties. Produced by distillation of the inner wood.

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Sandalwood Oil
Plant derived
Deep, soft, sweet, woody balsamic scent. Highly esteemed in China and India. Plays a part in Hindu ritual.

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Saponins (Quillia Extract)
Many plants (soap plants) contain substances called saponins which form a natural lather in water that is a gentle but effective natural cleaner and some have been used as an alternative to soap.

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Sassafras
Essential oil obtained from the roots of the Sassafras tree. Is a healing and antiseptic extract that can reduce irritation and swelling.

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Saturated Fats
A fat usually of animal origin. When fatty acid chains can't accommodate any more hydrogen atoms they become saturated.

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Sclerotium Gum
Plant derived
A natural plant gum with anti-aging properties used as a thickening agent. Produced by a biofermentation process.

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Sea Algae
Plant
For firmer, healthier skin. Contains essential minerals and amino acids, sea proteins and polysaccharides, the important components that make up the skin?s natural moisture factor (NMF). Rich in trace minerals, which help increase circulation and thicken the epidermis. Minerals from algae are rich in anti-oxidants, vitamins, and mucilage that can protect, hydrate and soften the skin.

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Sea Buckthorn
Plant
Grows on the sand dunes by the sea and produces a yellow berry. The liquid wax from the berry is very compatible with the lipid structure of the skin and provides a strong water retentive and skin moisturizing quality.

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Sea Kelp
Sea Kelp
Plant
Helps strengthen the skin?s epidermis.Rich in vitamins A, C, E & B complex. Sea kelp contains the same vital nutrients, trace elements, and amino acids present in human blood plasma which allows it to penetrate the skin more readily than most other ingredients. Soothing, moisturizing, nourishing, restoring, softening. Classified as a seaweed, rich in vitamin and minerals with high iodine content to keep skin from wrinkling and sagging. Antiseptic, anti-irritant, especially effective to self-heal of minor burns, both thermal and sun damaged.

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Sea Minerals
Mineral
Sea algae/ seaweed rich in trace minerals that help increase circulation for dry dull skin. Essential minerals, amino acids, sea protein and polysaccharides comprise the important components that make up skin?s natural moisture factor (NMF). Results? Firmer, Younger, Healthier skin.

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Sea Palm
Plant
Very rich in potassium and beta-carotenoids and a wealth of co-enzymes and trace minerals. It is known as the most elastic of all seaweeds and used as a connective tissue enhancer.

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Sea Salt
Sea Salt
Mineral
Sea salt is obtained by evaporating seawater, is used in cooking and cosmetics. Historically called bay salt, its mineral content gives it a different taste from table salt, which is pure sodium chloride, usually refined from mined rock salt (halite) or from sea salt.

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Seaweed
Plant
High in vitamins A, B - complex, C and E. A skin and scalp nutrient, soothing and toning.

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Seaweed Essential Oil
Plant derived
A CO-2 microburst extraction of French kelp varieties of seaweed; it yields aromatic oil and the protoplasmic bio-substance of the ocean.

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Sebaceous Glands
Glands in the skin that open into hair follicles and from which sebum is secreted.

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Seborrhea
A condition in which there is over-activity of the sebaceous glands. The distinctive characteristics of the disorder are its common occurrence in hair areas (especially the scalp), the appearance of well-demarcated, dull yellowish-red lesions, and the associated presence of greasy or dry scales. Rashes can occur on the face, shoulders and chest./p

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Sepigel
Synthetic
??? A safe & non-toxic thickening and stabilizing agent for emulsion.

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Sesame (Sesamum Indicum) Oil
Plant
Skin conditioning agent, occlusive, emollient, lubricant. Source of Linoleic Acid.

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Sesame Oil
Sesame
Plant derived
A light, emollient oil obtained from sesame seeds. Also known as gingilli oil, it has been used since earliest antiquity, as a soothing, gentle emollient. It is an excellent substitute for olive oil and offers exceptional staying power in massage preparations.

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Shea Butter
Shea Butter
Plant derived
An excellent emollient for skin moisturizers made from Mangifolia Tree Nuts High in triglycerides and fatty acids. From the nut of the karate nut tree; a cellular renewal ingredient that has excellent nourishing and moisturizing benefits for the skin. It is a natural ?sun block?.

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Shorea Butter
Plant derived
??? Extract from kernel of Shorea Stenoptera, excellent emollient, silky non-oily feel.

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Skin Texture
Appearance of the skin which may be rough, smooth, dull, dry and scaly, etc.

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Soap
A cleansing material made of oils, detergents and fragrance, used on skin. Comes in many different forms; bar soap, liquid soap, gels, and flakes. The detergents in soap combine with water to penetrate the skin, attract the dirt particles and separate them from the skin, making them easier to then rinse away.

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Soap Bark
Plant derived
A natural surfactant used for its cleansing properties. It has excellent foaming and cleansing abilities, containing 9-10% saponins. Derived from dried inner bark of the South American tree quillaja saponaria. Healing properties, emulsifier.

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Soapwort
plant
An herb with cleansing, and healing properties that will actually create lather when the leaves are rubbed together.

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Sodium Alginate
Natural compound. Mostly used as a thickener and emulsifier in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.

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Sodium Ascorbate
Used in cosmetics as an antioxidant and preservative.

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Sodium Bisulphite
Artificial chemical that is used as a hair relaxer and a preservative.

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Sodium Borate
Used in cosmetics as an emulsifier, preservative and detergent builder.

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Sodium Carbonate
Used in cosmetics as a humectant and an alkalizer.

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Sodium Chloride
Mineral
Viscosity increasing agent. Astringent.

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Sodium Citrate
Crystalline salt. Used in cosmetics as a sequestrant and an alkalizer, and in foods as a buffering agent.

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Sodium Cocoamphoacetate
Plant derived
Mild, high foaming, primary surfactant with good wetting and dispersing properties.

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Sodium Coco-Sulfate
Plant derived
Mild, high foaming, primary surfactant with good foaming, wetting and dispersing properties. A gentle surfactant with excellent foaming capabilities. A great alternative to sodium laurel sulfate. Derived from coconut oil.

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Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate
A surfactant which has excellent moisturizing quality and mild cleansing quality. It is derived from coconut oil.

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Sodium Hyaluronate
Collagen and elastin supporter. A protein occurring in the skin that appears to bind water in the interstitial spaces between skin cells while it forms a gel-like substance to hold these cells together.

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Sodium Hydroxide
Mineral
pH adjuster - alkaline.

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Sodium Laurel Sarcosinate
Cleansing agent with good conditioning properties. Primarily used as a secondary surfactant.

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Sodium Lauroamphoacetate
A surfactant with gentle cleansing and good hair conditioning properties. It is derived from coconut oil.

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Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
Very popular ingredient. Used as a detergent, emulsifier, and surfactant in over a thousand cosmetic products. This includes shampoos, toothpaste, lotions, and creams.? Even though it is very popular, this additive can be harsh and drying to the skin.

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Sodium Metabisulfate
An antiseptic and pH adjuster with anti-oxidant and bactericidal action. Food grade.

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Sodium Methyl Cocoyl Taurate
Plant derived
Mild, high foaming, wetting and dispersing agent. Imparts a smooth and pleasing after feel on skin. May help to remove calcium soaps/salts that remain after hair relaxer treatment.

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Sodium Myristoyl Sarcosinate
Plant derived
High foaming, mild, conditioning surfactant. Substantive to hair. Imparts lubricity for a soft, silky feel. Controls static. Does not strip hair of its natural oils..

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Sodium Pca
(NaPCA) The sodium salt of pyroglutamic acid. A high performance humectant (water binder) found naturally in all living cells. It is commonly referred to as the ?natural moisturizing factor?.

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Sodium Silicate
Mineral
A mineral used as a pH adjuster and buffering agent.

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Sodium Thioglycolate
A chemical used in permanents as a hair relaxer. Is a primary irritant.

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Sorbitol
Plant derived
Derived from fruit or algae. A humectant that gives skin a velvety feel. Gives a lubricant quality to lotions.

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Soy Protein
Amino acid and lipid rich to help aid cellular regeneration. Helps increase elasticity and soften lines and wrinkles.

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Soybean Oil
Plant derived
Pale yellow oil. Consists of mostly glycerides of linoleic, oleic, linolenic, and palmitic acids. Used in cosmetics as an emollient.

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Spearmint Oil
Plant derived
Essential oil obtained from the fresh spearmint plant. Known for its healing, soothing properties.

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Spirulina
Plant
A type of blue-green algae found in most lakes and ponds, it is very nutrient rich containing vitamins E & B complex, beta-carotene, minerals manganese, zinc, copper, iron, selenium, and gamma linolenic acid (an essential fatty acid). It is moisturizing, firming, nourishing and anti-inflammatory.

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St. John's Wort (Hypericum Perforatum)
Plant
Anti-inflammatory. An astringent herb with anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and firming properties.

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Stearalkonium Chloride
Used almost universally in hair conditioners. It was originally developed by the textile industry for use as a fabric softener. It also has antistatic properties. Anti-static, detangler, and hair conditioner. Quaternary ammonium compound.

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Steareth-2,-4,-7,-10,-20,-30
Used as lotions and emulsifiers.

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Stearic Acid
Waxy, crystalline fatty acid. Found in cocoa butter and other vegetable fats. It is mainly from tallow and other animal fats. (Vegetable) A white, waxy fatty acid used as an emulsifying agent.

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Stearyl Alcohol
Plant derived
Thickener. Emulsion stabilizer. Helps reduce oily feel and drying effects of other ingredients.Also acts as an emulsion stabilizer, emollient, anti-foam agent and lubricant.

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Stevia
Stevia
Plant derived
Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. The species Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, commonly known as sweetleaf, sweet leaf, sugarleaf, or simply stevia, is widely grown for its sweet leaves. As a sugar substitute, stevia's taste has a slower onset and longer duration than that of sugar, although some of its extracts may have a bitter or liquorice-like aftertaste at high concentrations.

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Stratum Corneum
The topmost layer of cells of the epidermis.

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Strawberry
Strawberries
Plant
Soothing, astringent, and firming; strawberry contains more vitamin C than an orange and also contains ellagic acid, a super anti-oxidant.

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Subcutaneous
The third and innermost layer of the skin.

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Sucrose Cocoate
Plant derived
Thickener. Emulsion stabilizer. Gentle Cleanser. Naturally derived sugar ester from coconut. Water soluble, effective cleansing & makeup removing, without stripping the natural sebum of the skin

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Sugar Cane Extract
Sugar Cane
Plant derived
Gently removes damaged, dead and dry cell so fresh, healthy-looking skin can appear.

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Sulfate
Synthetic
Artificial liquid. Made with sulfated oils. Used to make manufactured soaps and detergents. Harmful to marine life and the environment.

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Sunflower Oil (Helianthus Annuus)
Sunflower
Plant
Emollient. Spreading agent.Obtained from the seeds of the sunflower. Rich in vitamin E, it aids healing, and has a high linoleic acid and fatty acid content, which allows for better absorption into the lipid layer of the skin. An emollient extracted from sunflower seeds, rich in essential fatty acid.

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Surfectant
Synthetic
A material (substance) that helps oil and water to mix so that the two will not separate and will remain a smooth stable cream or lotion (Emulsifier). They are also are important for cosmetics where mildness is needed such as shampoos and lotions.

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Sweet Almond (Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis) Oil
Plant
Emollient. Spreading agent.Natural nut oil high in fatty acids, absorbed easily through skin than mineral oil.

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Tamarind
Tamarind
Plant
Extracted from the fruits of the sub-tropical leguminous tree Tamarindus indica for centuries has been widely used in herbal medicine. Stimulates skin repair, and protects against environmental damage and premature ageing. Percentage of AHAs

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Tangerine Essential Oil
Tangerine
Plant derived
Effective for acne and oily skin, it is antiseptic, and antispasmodic. It is also useful in the treatment of stretch marks, helps reduce fluid retention, and soothes the nervous system.

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Tapioca Powder
Plant derived
Skin soother and natural thickener.

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Tea Tree
Tea Tree
Plant
A plant found in Australia, used for its unique fragrance and healing properties.

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Tea Tree Essential Oil
Plant derived
(Melaleuca Alternifolia) From the leaves of the Australian tea tree, this oil is used to treat acne, cuts, burns, insect bites, fungus and other skin and scalp disorders.

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Tea Tree Oil
Plant derived
Derived from the tree Melaleuca alternifolia. Used as an antiseptic and germicide. Also used for insect bites, skin problems, as a dentifrice, and mouthwash. Cosmetic applications are often dandruff shampoos, face masks, and topical creams.

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Tea-Lauryl Sulfate
Synthetic
Very popular shampoo ingredient. Used as synthetic detergent. A combination of triethanolamine and the salt of lauryl sulfuric acid.

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Tetrahexadecyl Ascorbate (Vitamin C)
Synthetic
Stabilized form of vitamin C. Antioxidant. Stimulates collagen synthesis.

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Thioglycolates
Compounds capable of breaking down the protein bonds in hair. Used in permanent waves and depilatory agents. Toxic in small doses and can damage hair and skin.

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Thyme
Thyme
Anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory with astringent properties that help firm collagen in the skin.

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Thyme Extract
Plant derived
From the dried leaves and flowering tops of the wild, creeping herb. Is antiseptic, disinfectant, cleansing and hygienic.

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Time Release Liposome Complex
A range of vitamin and herbal phyto-active supplements to be time delivered into the skin for a continuous gentle release of vital nutrients.

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Titanium Dioxide
Mineral
A natural carbohydrate gum used as a thickener and emulsion stabilizer. Used as a pigment in eye makeup, sunscreens, and foundation makeup. It is also used as an opacifying agent, for its covering power, brilliance, and reflectivity.

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Tocopherols (Vitamin E)
Vitamin
??? Vitamin E in water soluble form, extracted from vegetable oils. A powerful anti-oxidant that protect cell membranes against damaging effects of free radicals. For years, used in creams & lotions to reduce fine lines & wrinkles.

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Tocopheryl Acetate
Synthetic
Stabilized form of Vitamin E. Antioxidant that plays a crucial role in protecting skin against damage caused by free radicals which are generated by natural body processes and environmental stresses.

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Toilet Water
A less concentrated form of fragrance than perfume, usually 4 to 8%. This is a less aromatic scent, making it more suitable for daytime use, and the business world.

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Toluene
Synthetic
Used as a solvent in cosmetics, especially nail polish, and also dyes. It is used in pharmaceuticals and gasoline as a blending agent. It is toxic and narcotic in high concentrations.

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Top Note
The initial odor or scent given off by a fragrance after application to the skin. The strongest emission of bouquet, before it is altered by the body chemistry.

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Tragacanth
Plant derived
Herbal gum. Used as a thickener in cosmetics, and in hair care products as a hairspray or setting-lotion ingredient.

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Triclosan
An antibacterial agent used in deodorant and deodorant soaps. Absorption through skin may cause liver damage.

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Triethanolamine.
Synthetic
Used in cosmetics as a pH adjuster, an emulsifier, a preservative, and in soap formulations. May be harmful when contaminated by nitrosamines.

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Ulva
Plant
A sea plant known as ?sea lettuce? because of its bright green lettuce like leaf; a high source of soluble iron, potassium, and complex polysaccharides compatible with natural skin oils.

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Urea
Found in urine and other body fluids. Used medicinally as a diuretic and in cosmetics. Can cause an allergic reaction to those allergic to ammonia and is an eye irritant.

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Uva Ursi
Plant
Bearberry (or Manzanita) A natural source of hydroquinone (pigment lightener) due to the astringency of the tannin acid found in the berries and leaves of this plant. Also contains arbutin which can inhibit melanin production. Uva Ursi inhibits the production of tyrosinase and also naturally decreases existing pigment.

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Vanilla Beans
Vanilla Beans
Plant derived
Vanilla is a flavouring derived from orchids in the genus Vanilla native to Mexico. The name came from the Spanish word "vainilla," meaning "little pod."[1] Vanilla is valued for its sweet flavour and scent and is widely used in the preparation of desserts and perfumes. Today, the majority of the world's vanilla is produced in a small region on the island of Madagascar, an island in the Indian Ocean.

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Vetiver Oil
Plant derived
With a deep smoky, earthy, woody odor, it is used as a tonic and antiseptic. Helps encourage circulation and is also used for its aromatic, fine fragrance.

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Vitamin A
Vitamin
A powerful free-radical scavenger used as an anti-aging and healing ingredient. Topically applied vitamin A is one of only three vitamins able to be absorbed by the skin. The other two are vitamins D& E. Fat-soluble vitamin. Helps remedy rough, dry skin and has been used in the treatment of psoriasis. It has been used as a topical acne treatment. Some people are allergic to it. It has been used to treat aging skin. It can be obtained from fish liver oil, liver, carrots, green and yellow vegetables, eggs, milk, and dairy products, margarine, and yellow fruits. It prevents vitamin C from being oxidized too quickly in the body. Normal dosages are harmless.

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Vitamin C
Vitamin
Can preserve cosmetics both in the water phase and in its fat-soluble form. It plays an important role in building collagen, the connective tissue that holds us together.

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Vitamin D
Vitamin
Fat-soluble vitamin essential for healthy bones, teeth, and the absorption of calcium. The body can produce its own vitamin D from sun exposure.One of only three vitamins, topically applied, that are absorbed by the skin (the other two are vitamins A & E). Vitamin D is necessary for the re-production of new skin cells, and when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light, it is the only vitamin that the body is able to manufacture.

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Vitamin E
Vitamin
One of the most compelling natural fat-soluble antioxidants in use, particularly when combined with vitamin C and vitamin A.

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Vitamins
Vitamin
Essential for normal growth and contribute to the natural moisturizing factor. The skin is often the first indication of a vitamin deficiency that can cause dry skin.

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Wakame
Plant
A fern like member of the kelp family, rich in bio-available amino acids and vitamins, making it a highly nutritious food source for the skin.

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Walnut Shell Powder
Walnuts
Plant derived
The ground powder of the walnut shell acts as a natural exfoliant

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Watermelon
Plant derived
High in Vitamin A, beta-carotene and zinc; it soothes and softens the skin.

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Wheat Germ Oil
Plant derived
A natural source of vitamins A, D & E, and squalane. Emollient oil that?s acts as a natural preservative and anti-oxidant.Oil from the embryo of the wheat kernel that is high in vitamin E. Used as a moisturizer in cosmetics.

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White Ginger
White Ginger
Plant
Healing agent. Anti-dandruff properties.

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White Sage
White Sage
Plant derived
(Salvia apiana), also known as Sacred sage, is an evergreen perennial shrub of the genus Salvia, the sages. It is native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, being found mainly in the coastal sage scrub habitat of Southern California and Baja California, on the western edges of the Mojave and Sonoran deserts.

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White Tea (Camellia Sinensis)
Plant
Antioxidant, contains high levels of polyphenols.

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Wild Cherry Bark
Plant
Relaxant, soothing agent, astringent.

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Willow Bark
Plant
Rich in phenolic compounds and salicin (glycodise of salicyl alcohol). Its constituents are salicylic glycosides and tannins, which contribute to its analgesic properties. A natural form of salicylic acid, a beta hydroxy acid widely used as an exfoliant and to keep pores clean of debris.

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Wintergreen Oil
Wintergreen
Plant derived
A tonic, stimulant and astringent, aromatic oil has a warming action on muscles. Brings relief to swollen or sore muscles.

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Witch Hazel
Witch Hazel
Plant derived
A natural extract from the leaves and twigs of a shrub. A skin refresher, local anesthetic and a natural, gentle astringent. It is soothing to the skin and helps regulate sebaceous glands. A natural astringent known for shrinking skin pores. Applied externally, it soothes inflammation, burns, infections & insect bites.

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Xanthan Gum
Bacterial Fermentation
Thickener, binder, suspension aid. A natural carbohydrate gum used as a thickener and emulsion stabilizer.

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Yarrow
Plant
Moisturizing, softening, and soothing with mild astringency. Also has antibiotic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and healing properties. Constituents include flavonoids, amino acids, sugars and phytosterols.

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Yeast
Bacterial Fermentation
Contains an abundance of proteins, sugars and amino acids. An excellent humectant that helps enhance cellular turnover. Because its properties are similar to soluble collagen, it is often referred to as pseudocollagen (not containing actual collagen, but having the same beneficial properties). May also help reduce hyperpigmentation by blocking melanin biosynthesis. A calming extract that when combined with glycosaminoglycans and glycopolysaccarides helps

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Ylang-Ylang Essential Oil
Ylang Ylang
Plant derived
A natural antiseptic essential oil with soothing properties. Extracted from the flowers of the plant, the oil is used for its cleansing, smoothing and refining the skin. It also helps clear congestion.

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Yucca
Yucca
Plant
Rich in saponins, this naturally foaming herb is used as a traditional soap plant in the American southwest. It is very cleansing, and soothing.

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Zinc
Mineral
A natural mineral. Calming, with osmosis and diffusion qualities. Accelerates wound healing and offers some UV protection. Lowers sebaceous secretions, making it an excellent ingredient in acne preparations.

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Zinc Oxide
Mineral
A natural, mineral derived ?skin protecting? sunscreen agent; antiseptic, astringent, and soothing. Offers broad-spectrum protection against both UVA and UVB rays. Often used to thicken lotions and creams. White powder used in skin ointments for ultraviolet protection and diaper rash treatment. Also used for its skin-cleansing properties.

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Zinc Sulfate
Mineral
Allows deeper penetration and enhances the effectiveness of vitamin C. Astringent and antibacterial.

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